- 1761 – The Third Battle of Panipat is fought in India between the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marathas.
- 1784 – American Revolutionary War: Ratification Day, United States – Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain.
- 1814 – Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes the Kingdom of Norway to Charles XIII of Sweden in return for Pomerania.
- 1858 – Napoleon III of France escapes an assassination attempt made by Felice Orsini and his accomplices in Paris.
- 1939 – Norway claims Queen Maud Land in Antarctica.
- 1943 – World War II: Japan begins Operation Ke, the successful operation to evacuate its forces from Guadalcanal during the Guadalcanal Campaign.
- 1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill begin the Casablanca Conference to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war.
- 1953 – Josip Broz Tito is elected the first President of Yugoslavia.
- 1969 – USS Enterprise fire: An accidental explosion aboard the USS Enterprise near Hawaii kills 28 people.
- 2004 – The national flag of the Republic of Georgia, the so-called “five cross flag”, is restored to official use after a hiatus of some 500 years.
- 2010 – Yemen declares an open war against the terrorist group al-Qaeda.
- 2011 – President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia seeks refuge in Saudi Arabia after a series of demonstrations against his regime, considered to be the birth of the Arab Spring.
- Defender of the Motherland Day (Uzbekistan).
- 83 BC – Mark Antony, Roman general and politician (d. 30 BCE).
- 1741 – Benedict Arnold, American-British general (d. 1801).
- 1792 – Christian de Meza, Danish general (d. 1865).
- 1806 – Charles Hotham, English-Australian soldier and politician, 1st Governor of Victoria (d. 1855).
- 1863 – Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa, Portuguese general and politician, 10th President of Portugal (d. 1929).
- 1894 – Ecaterina Teodoroiu, Romanian soldier and nurse (d. 1917).
- 1897 – Hasso von Manteuffel, German general and politician (d. 1978).
- 1899 – Carlos P. Romulo, Filipino soldier and politician, President of the United Nations General Assembly (d. 1985).
- 1914 – Harold Russell, Canadian-American soldier and actor (d. 2002).
- 1919 – Andy Rooney, American soldier, journalist, critic, and television personality (d. 2011).
- 1942 – Gerben Karstens, Dutch cyclist (d. 2022).
- 1978 – Shawn Crawford, American sprinter.
- 1981 – Hyleas Fountain, American heptathlete.
- 1982 – Thomas Longosiwa, Kenyan runner.
- 1990 – Lelisa Desisa, Ethiopian runner.
- 1701 – Tokugawa Mitsukuni, Japanese daimyō (b. 1628).
- 1776 – Edward Cornwallis, English general and politician, Governor of Gibraltar (b. 1713).
- 1970 – Asım Gündüz, Turkish general (b. 1880).
- 1977 – Anthony Eden, English soldier and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1897).
- 1978 – Harold Abrahams, English sprinter, lawyer, and journalist (b. 1899).
- 1997 – Dollard Ménard, Canadian general (b. 1913).
- 2015 – Zhang Wannian, Chinese general (b. 1928).