- 1503 – The Battle of Garigliano was fought between a Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and a French army commanded by Ludovico II, Marquess of Saluzzo.
- 1607 – According to John Smith, Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan leader Wahunsenacawh, successfully pleads for his life after tribal leaders attempt to execute him.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: Three thousand British soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell capture Savannah, Georgia.
- 1812 – USS Constitution, under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, captures HMS Java off the coast of Brazil after a three-hour battle.
- 1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
- 1845 – The United States annexes the Republic of Texas.
- 1860 – The launch of HMS Warrior, with her combination of screw propeller, iron hull and iron armour, renders all previous warships obsolete.
- 1874 – The military coup of General Martinez Campos in Sagunto ends the failed First Spanish Republic and the monarchy is restored as Prince Alfonso is proclaimed King of Spain.
- 1890 – On Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, 300 Lakota are killed by the United States 7th Cavalry Regiment.
- 1911 – Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty, enthroning 8th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu as Khagan of Mongolia.
- 1930 – Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s presidential address in Allahabad introduces the two-nation theory and outlines a vision for the creation of Pakistan.
- 1934 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
- 1937 – The Irish Free State is replaced by a new state called Ireland with the adoption of a new constitution.
- 1940 – In the Second Great Fire of London, the Luftwaffe fire-bombs London, England, killing almost 200 civilians during World War II.
- 1996 – Guatemala and leaders of Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord ending a 36-year civil war.
- 1998 – Leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologize for the Cambodian genocide that claimed over one million lives.
- 2006 – The UK settles its Anglo-American loan, post-WWII loan debt.
- 1746 – Saverio Cassar, Maltese priest and rebel leader (d. 1805).
- 1766 – Charles Macintosh, Scottish chemist and the inventor of waterproof fabric (d. 1843).
- 1808 – Andrew Johnson, American general and politician, 17th President of the United States (d. 1875).
- 1859 – Venustiano Carranza, Mexican soldier and politician, 37th President of Mexico (d. 1920).
- 1879 – Billy Mitchell, American general and pilot (d. 1936).
- 1958 – Nancy J. Currie-Gregg, American colonel, engineer, and astronaut.
- 1960 – Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Congolese militia leader, founded the Union of Congolese Patriots.
- 1890 – Spotted Elk, American tribal leader (b. 1826).
- 1944 – Khasan Israilov, Chechen rebel (b. 1910).
- 1959 – Robin Milford, English soldier and composer (b. 1903).
- 1976 – Ivo Van Damme, Belgian runner (b. 1954).
- 1986 – Harold Macmillan, English captain and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1894).
- 1998 – Ralph Siu, American scholar, military and civil servant, and author (b. 1917).
- 2008 – Victor H. Krulak, American soldier (b. 1913).
- 2015 – Om Prakash Malhotra, Indian general and politician, 25th Governor of Punjab (b. 1922).