- 489 – The Ostrogoths under Theoderic the Great defeat the forces of Odoacer for the second time.
- 737 – The Turgesh drive back an Umayyad invasion of Khuttal, follow them south of the Oxus, and capture their baggage train.
- 1541 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto and his forces enter Tula territory in present-day western Arkansas, encountering fierce resistance.
- 1551 – A coup by the military establishment of Japan’s Ōuchi clan forces their lord to commit suicide, and their city is burned.
- 1744 – War of the Austrian Succession: France and Spain defeat Sardinia at the Battle of Madonna dell’Olmo, but soon have to withdraw from Sardinia anyway.
- 1791 – France’s National Constituent Assembly is dissolved, to be replaced the next day by the National Legislative Assembly.
- 1915 – World War I: Radoje Ljutovac becomes the first soldier in history to shoot down an enemy aircraft with ground-to-air fire.
- 1938 – Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, whereby Germany annexes the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.
- 1938 – The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.
- 1939 – World War II: General Władysław Sikorski becomes prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile.
- 1941 – World War II: The Babi Yar massacre comes to an end.
- 1944 – World War II: The Germans commence a counter offensive to retake the Nijmegen salient, this having been captured by the allies during Operation Market Garden.
- 1949 – The Berlin Airlift ends.
- 1954 – The US Navy submarine USS Nautilus is commissioned as the world’s first nuclear-powered vessel.
- 1965 – Six Indonesian Army generals were assassinated by the September 30 Movement.
- The PKI was blamed for the latter, resulting in mass killings of suspected leftists afterwards.
- 2000 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Twelve-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah is shot and killed on the second day of the Second Intifada.
- Independence Day (Botswana) or Botswana Day, celebrates the independence of Botswana from United Kingdom in 1966.
- 1765 – José María Morelos, Mexican priest and general (d. 1815).
- 1863 – Reinhard Scheer, German admiral (d. 1928).
- 1897 – Alfred Wintle, Russian-English soldier and politician (d. 1966).
- 1910 – Jussi Kekkonen, Finnish captain (d. 1962).
- 1918 – Lewis Nixon, US Army captain (d. 1995).
- 1940 – Harry Jerome, Canadian sprinter (d. 1982).
- 1988 – Eglė Staišiūnaitė, Lithuanian hurdler.
- 940 – Fan Yanguang, Chinese general.
- 1440 – Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn, Welsh soldier and politician (b. 1362).
- 1551 – Ōuchi Yoshitaka, Japanese daimyō (b. 1507).
- 1891 – Georges Ernest Boulanger, French general and politician, French Minister of War (b. 1837).
- 1942 – Hans-Joachim Marseille, German captain and pilot (b. 1919).
- 1946 – Takashi Sakai, Japanese general and politician, Governor of Hong Kong (b. 1887).
- 1974 – Carlos Prats, Chilean general and politician, Chilean Minister of Defence (b. 1915).
- 1998 – Robert Lewis Taylor, American soldier and author (b. 1912).
- 2018 – Sonia Orbuch, Polish resistance fighter during the Second World War and Holocaust educator. (b. 1925).
- 2019 – Victoria Braithwaite, British research scientist who proved fish feel pain (b. 1967).