- 46 BC – Julius Caesar dedicates a temple to Venus Genetrix, fulfilling a vow he made at the Battle of Pharsalus.
- 715 – Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald at the Battle of Compiègne.
- 1345 – Friso-Hollandic Wars: Frisians defeat Holland in the Battle of Warns.
- 1371 – Serbian–Turkish wars: Ottoman Turks fought against a Serbian army at the Battle of Maritsa.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issues the papal bull Dudum siquidem to the Spanish, extending the grant of new lands he made them in Inter caetera.
- 1580 – Francis Drake finishes his circumnavigation of the Earth in Plymouth, England.
- 1687 – Morean War: The Parthenon in Athens, used as a gunpowder depot by the Ottoman garrison, is partially destroyed after being bombarded during the Siege of the Acropolis by Venetian forces.
- 1688 – The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange’s invasion of England, which became the Glorious Revolution.
- 1777 – American Revolution: British troops occupy Philadelphia.
- 1799 – War of the 2nd Coalition: Franco-Swiss troops defeat Austro-Russian forces, leading to the collapse of Suvorov’s campaign (refer to French Revolutionary Wars).
- 1907 – Four months after the 1907 Imperial Conference, New Zealand and Newfoundland are promoted from colonies to dominions within the British Empire.
- 1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood begins.
- 1918 – World War I: The Meuse-Argonne Offensive began which would last until the total surrender of German forces.
- 1923 – The German government accepts the occupation of the Ruhr.
- 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Lluis Companys reshuffles the Generalitat de Catalunya, with the marxist POUM and anarcho-syndicalist CNT joining the government.
- 1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Senior SS official August Frank issues a memorandum detailing how Jews should be “evacuated”.
- 1950 – Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul from North Korean forces.
- 1953 – Rationing of sugar in the United Kingdom ends (instigated during World War II).
- 1983 – Soviet Air Force officer Stanislav Petrov identifies a report of an incoming nuclear missile as a computer error and not an American first strike.
- 1984 – The United Kingdom and China agree to a transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, to take place in 1997.
- 1406 – Thomas de Ros, 8th Baron de Ros, English soldier and politician (d. 1430).
- 1711 – Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, English politician, First Lord of the Admiralty (d. 1779).
- 1750 – Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, English admiral (d. 1810).
- 1865 – Archibald Butt, United States Army Officer (d. 1912).
- 1887 – Barnes Wallis, English scientist and engineer, invented the Bouncing bomb (d. 1979).
- 1895 – Jürgen Stroop, German general (d. 1952).
- 1897 – Arthur Rhys-Davids, English lieutenant and pilot (d. 1917).
- 1914 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness expert (d. 2011).
- 1947 – Dick Roth, American swimmer.
- 1962 – Steve Moneghetti, Australian runner.
- 1974 – Gary Hall Jr., American swimmer.
- 1979 – Simon Kirch, German sprinter.
- 1994 – Jack Conger, American swimmer.
- 862 – Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi, Muslim military leader (b. c. 790).
- 1371 – Jovan Uglješa, Serbian despot.
- 1536 – Didier de Saint-Jaille, 46th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller.
- 1626 – Wakisaka Yasuharu, Japanese daimyō (b. 1554).
- 1943 – Henri Fertet, French Resistance fighter (b. 1926).
- 1959 – Leslie Morshead, Australian general (b. 1889).
- 1965 – James Fitzmaurice, Irish soldier and pilot (b. 1898).
- 2006 – Iva Toguri D’Aquino, American wartime propaganda broadcaster (b. 1916).
- 2015 – Sidney Phillips, American soldier, physician, and author (b. 1924).
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