On This Day … 11 September [2022]


  • 9 – The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends: The Roman Empire suffers the greatest defeat of its history and the Rhine is established as the border between the Empire and the so-called barbarians for the next four hundred years.
  • 1185 – Isaac II Angelos kills Stephen Hagiochristophorites and then appeals to the people, resulting in the revolt that deposes Andronikos I Komnenos and places Isaac on the throne of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1297 – Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots jointly led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeat the English.
  • 1390 – Lithuanian Civil War (1389-1392): The Teutonic Knights begin a five-week siege of Vilnius.
  • 1541 – Santiago, Chile, is attacked by indigenous warriors, led by Michimalonco, to free eight indigenous chiefs held captive by the Spaniards.
  • 1565 – Ottoman forces retreat from Malta ending the Great Siege of Malta.
  • 1609 – Henry Hudson arrives on Manhattan Island and meets the indigenous people living there.
    1649 – Siege of Drogheda ends: Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarian troops take the town and execute its garrison.
    1683 – Battle of Vienna: Coalition forces, including the famous winged Hussars, led by Polish King John III Sobieski lift the siege laid by Ottoman forces.
    1697 – Battle of Zenta: a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683-1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history.
    1708 – Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War.
    • The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power.
  • 1709 – Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands, and Austria fight against France.
  • 1714 – Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • 1758 – Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.
  • 1776 – British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Brandywine: The British celebrate a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Sugarloaf massacre: A small detachment of militia from Northampton County, Pennsylvania, are attacked by Native Americans and Loyalists near Little Nescopeck Creek.
  • 1800 – The Maltese National Congress Battalions are disbanded by British Civil Commissioner Alexander Ball.
  • 1802 – France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont.
  • 1803 – Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia’s army under General Louis Bourquin.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: British troops arrive in Mount Vernon and prepare to march to and invade Washington, D.C.
  • 1814 – War of 1812: The climax of the Battle of Plattsburgh, a major United States victory in the war.
  • 1829 – An expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown to retake Mexico, surrenders at the Battle of Tampico, marking the effective end of Mexico’s campaign for independence.
  • 1836 – The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed by rebels after defeating Empire of Brazil’s troops in the Battle of Seival, during the Ragamuffin War.
  • 1852 – Outbreak of Revolution of 11 September resulting in the State of Buenos Aires declaring independence as a Republic.
  • 1897 – After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of the Kaffa.
  • 1914 – World War I: Australia invades German New Guinea, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.
  • 1919 – United States Marine Corps invades Honduras.
  • 1922 – The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.
  • 1941 – Construction begins on The Pentagon.
  • 1941 – World War II: Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and FDR’s administration of pressing for war with Germany.
  • 1943 – World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and Kosovo-Metohija ending the Italian occupation of Corsica.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Western Allied invasion of Germany begins near the city of Aachen.
  • 1944 – World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.
  • 1945 – World War II: Australian 9th Division forces liberate the Japanese-run Batu Lintang camp, a POW and civilian internment camp on the island of Borneo.
  • 1965 – Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.
  • 1967 – China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) launched an attack on Indian posts at Nathu La, Sikkim, India, which resulted in military clashes.
  • 1973 – A coup in Chile, headed by General Augusto Pinochet, topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende.
    • Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.
  • 1980 – A new constitution of Chile is established under the influence of then Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, which is subject to controversy in Chile today.
  • 1982 – The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel’s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut.
    • Five days later, several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Phalange forces.
  • 1989 – Hungary announces that the East German refugees who had been housed in temporary camps were free to leave for West Germany.
  • 1997 – Kurkse tragedy: Fourteen Estonian soldiers of the Baltic Battalion are drowned or die of hypothermia during a training exercise in the Kurkse Strait.
  • 2001 – The September 11 attacks, a series of coordinated terrorist attacks killing 2,996 people using four aircraft hijacked by 19 members of al-Qaeda.
    • Two aircraft crash into the World Trade Centre in New York City, a third crashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
  • Battle of Tendra Day (Russia).

People (Births)

  • 1182 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shōgun (d. 1204).
  • 1611 – Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, French general (d. 1675).
  • 1862 – Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, English field marshal and politician, 12th Governor General of Canada (d. 1935).
  • 1898 – Gerald Templer, English field marshal and politician, British High Commissioner in Malaya (d. 1979).
  • 1917 – Donald Blakeslee, American colonel and pilot (d. 2008).
  • 1917 – Ferdinand Marcos, Filipino soldier, lawyer, and politician, 10th President of the Philippines (d. 1989).
  • 1924 – Daniel Akaka, American soldier, engineer, and politician (d. 2018).
  • 1925 – Harry Somers, Canadian soldier and composer (d. 1999).
  • 1927 – G. David Schine, American soldier and businessman (d. 1996).
  • 1928 – Reubin Askew, American sergeant, lawyer, and politician, 37th Governor of Florida (d. 2014).
  • 1935 – Gherman Titov, Russian general, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2000).
  • 1937 – Robert Crippen, American captain, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1960 – Michael P. Leavitt, American soldier.
  • 1983 – Vivian Cheruiyot, Kenyan runner.

People (Deaths)

  • 883 – Kesta Styppiotes, Byzantine general.
  • 1865 – Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, French general (b. 1806).
  • 1917 – Georges Guynemer, French captain and pilot (b. 1894).
  • 1932 – Franciszek Żwirko, Polish soldier and pilot (b. 1895).
  • 1950 – Jan Smuts, South African field marshal and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1870).
  • 1952 – Alfrēds Riekstiņš, Latvian military officer and freedom fighter (d. 1913).
  • 1956 – Billy Bishop, Canadian colonel and pilot (b. 1894).
  • 1968 – René Cogny, French general (b. 1904).
  • 1971 – Nikita Khrushchev, Russian general and politician (b. 1894).
  • 1985 – Henrietta Barnett, British Women’s Royal Air Force officer (b. 1905).
  • 1993 – Mary Jane Reoch, American cyclist (b. 1945).
  • 2011 – Anjali Gupta, Indian soldier and pilot (b. 1975).

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