On This Day … 11 July [2022]


  • 472 – After being besieged in Rome by his own generals, Western Roman Emperor Anthemius is captured in St. Peter’s Basilica and put to death.
  • 813 – Byzantine emperor Michael I, under threat by conspiracies, abdicates in favour of his general Leo the Armenian, and becomes a monk (under the name Athanasius).
  • 911 – Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy.
  • 1174 – Baldwin IV, 13, becomes King of Jerusalem, with Raymond III, Count of Tripoli as regent and William of Tyre as chancellor.
  • 1302 – Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch): A coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France’s royal army.
  • 1405 – Ming admiral Zheng He sets sail to explore the world for the first time.
  • 1410 – Ottoman Interregnum: Süleyman Çelebi defeats his brother Musa Çelebi outside the Ottoman capital, Edirne.
  • 1576 – While exploring the North Atlantic Ocean in an attempt to find the Northwest Passage, Martin Frobisher sights Greenland, mistaking it for the hypothesized (but non-existent) island of “Frisland”.
  • 1616 – Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.
  • 1789 – Jacques Necker is dismissed as France’s Finance Minister sparking the Storming of the Bastille (refer to French Revolutionary Wars).
  • 1796 – The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.
  • 1798 – The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War.
  • 1833 – Noongar Australian aboriginal warrior Yagan, wanted for the murder of white colonists in Western Australia, is killed.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Fort Stevens; Confederate forces attempt to invade Washington, D.C.
  • 1882 – The British Mediterranean Fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the Anglo-Egyptian War.
  • 1889 – Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.
  • 1893 – A revolution led by the liberal general and politician José Santos Zelaya takes over state power in Nicaragua.
  • 1914 – USS Nevada (BB-36) is launched.
  • 1920 – In the East Prussian plebiscite the local populace decides to remain with Weimar Germany.
  • 1921 – A truce in the Irish War of Independence comes into effect.
  • 1921 – The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic (refer to Russian Civil War).
  • 1924 – Eric Liddell won the gold medal in 400m at the 1924 Paris Olympics, after refusing to run in the heats for 100m, his favoured distance, on the Sunday.
  • 1940 – World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established.
    • Philippe Pétain becomes Chief of the French State.
  • 1943 – World War II: Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Volhynia) peak.
  • 1943 – World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily: German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.
  • 1947 – The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.
  • 1960 – France legislates for the independence of Dahomey (later Benin), Upper Volta (later Burkina) and Niger.
  • 1960 – Congo Crisis: The State of Katanga breaks away from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • 1995 – Yugoslav Wars: Srebrenica massacre begins; lasts until 22 July.
  • 2010 – The Islamist militia group Al-Shabaab carried out multiple suicide bombings in Kampala, Uganda, killing 74 people and injuring 85 others.
  • 2011 – Ninety-eight containers of explosives self-detonate killing 13 people in Zygi, Cyprus.
  • National Day of Remembrance of the victims of the Genocide of the Citizens of the Polish Republic committed by Ukrainian Nationalists (Poland, established by the 22 July 2016 resolution of Sejm in reference to the 11 July 1943 Volhynian Bloody Sunday).

People (Births)

  • 1628 – Tokugawa Mitsukuni, Japanese daimyō (died 1701).
  • 1760 – Peggy Shippen, American wife of Benedict Arnold and American Revolutionary War spy (died 1804).
  • 1903 – Rudolf Abel, English-Russian colonel (died 1971).
  • 1911 – Erna Flegel, German nurse who was still present in the Führerbunker when it was captured by Soviet troops (died 2006).
  • 1933 – Frank Kelso, American admiral and politician, United States Secretary of the Navy (died 2013).
  • 1973 – Konstantinos Kenteris, Greek runner.
  • 1978 – Massimiliano Rosolino, Italian swimmer.
  • 1980 – Kevin Powers, American soldier and author.

People (Deaths)

  • 1599 – Chōsokabe Motochika, Japanese daimyō (b.1539).
  • 1774 – Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, Irish-English general (born 1715).
  • 1825 – Thomas P. Grosvenor, American soldier and politician (born 1744).
  • 1908 – Friedrich Traun, German sprinter and tennis player (born 1876).
  • 2013 – Eugene P. Wilkinson, American admiral (born 1918).

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