On This Day … 23 June [2022]

Events

  • 229 – On his death, at Cutilia, Vespasian is deified. He is succeeded by his elder son Titus, who is responsible for the capture of Jerusalem in 70.
    • Titus appoints his younger brother Flavius Domitianus as heir.
  • 1266 – War of Saint Sabas: In the Battle of Trapani, the Venetians defeat a larger Genoese fleet, capturing all its ships.
  • 1280 – The Spanish Reconquista: In the Battle of Moclín the Emirate of Granada ambush a superior pursuing force, killing most of them in a military disaster for the Kingdom of Castile.
  • 1305 – A peace treaty between the Flemish and the French is signed at Athis-sur-Orge.
  • 1314 – First War of Scottish Independence: The Battle of Bannockburn (south of Stirling) begins.
  • 1532 – Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France sign the “Treaty of Closer Amity With France” (also known as the Pommeraye treaty), pledging mutual aid against Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1565 – Dragut, commander of the Ottoman navy, dies during the Great Siege of Malta.
  • 1594 – The Action of Faial, Azores. The Portuguese carrack Cinco Chagas, loaded with slaves and treasure, is attacked and sunk by English ships with only 13 survivors out of over 700 on board.
  • 1611 – The mutinous crew of Henry Hudson’s fourth voyage sets Henry, his son and seven loyal crew members adrift in an open boat in what is now Hudson Bay; they are never heard from again.
  • 1683 – William Penn signs a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.
  • 1713 – The French residents of Acadia are given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • 1757 – Battle of Plassey: Three thousand British troops under Robert Clive defeat a 50,000-strong Indian army under Siraj ud-Daulah at Plassey.
  • 1758 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Krefeld: British, Hanoverian, and Prussian forces defeat French troops at Krefeld in Germany.
  • 1760 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Landeshut: Austria defeats Prussia.
  • 1780 – American Revolution: Battle of Springfield fought in and around Springfield, New Jersey (including Short Hills, formerly of Springfield, now of Millburn Township).
  • 1812 – War of 1812: Great Britain revokes the restrictions on American commerce, thus eliminating one of the chief reasons for going to war.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: At Fort Towson in the Oklahoma Territory, Confederate Brigadier General Stand Watie surrenders the last significant Confederate army.
  • 1868 – Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the “Type-Writer”.
  • 1894 – The International Olympic Committee is founded at the Sorbonne in Paris, at the initiative of Baron Pierre de Coubertin.
  • 1913 – Second Balkan War: The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.
  • 1914 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta.
  • 1919 – Estonian War of Independence: The decisive defeat of the Baltische Landeswehr in the Battle of Cēsis.
    • This date is celebrated as Victory Day in Estonia.
  • 1940 – World War II: Adolf Hitler goes on a three-hour tour of the architecture of Paris with architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker in his only visit to the city.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Lithuanian Activist Front declares independence from the Soviet Union and forms the Provisional Government of Lithuania; it lasts only briefly as the Nazis will occupy Lithuania a few weeks later.
  • 1942 – World War II: Germany’s latest fighter aircraft, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190, is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.
  • 1956 – The French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community by passing the Loi Cadre, transferring a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa.
  • 1961 – The Antarctic Treaty System, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and limits military activity on the continent, its islands and ice shelves, comes into force.
  • 1967 – Cold War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.
  • 2012 – Ashton Eaton breaks the decathlon world record at the United States Olympic Trials.
  • 2013 – Militants storm a high-altitude mountaineering base camp near Nanga Parbat in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, killing ten climbers and a local guide.
  • 2014 – The last of Syria’s declared chemical weapons are shipped out for destruction.
  • International Widows Day (international).
  • National Day of Remembrance for Victims of Terrorism (Canada).
  • Okinawa Memorial Day (Okinawa Prefecture).

People (Births)

  • 1534 – Oda Nobunaga, Japanese warlord (died 1582).
  • 1596 – Johan Banér, Swedish field marshal (died 1641).
  • 1877 – Norman Pritchard, Indian-English hurdler and actor (died 1929).
  • 1894 – Harold Barrowclough, New Zealand military leader, lawyer and Chief Justice (died 1972).
  • 1910 – Bill King, English yachtsman, naval commander and author (died 2012).
  • 1913 – William P. Rogers, American commander, lawyer, and politician, 55th United States Secretary of State (died 2001).
  • 1916 – Len Hutton, English cricketer and soldier (died 1990).
  • 1922 – Morris R. Jeppson, American lieutenant and physicist (died 2010).
  • 1923 – Giuseppina Tuissi, Italian communist and Partisan (died 1945).
  • 1925 – Anna Chennault, Chinese widow of Lieutenant General Claire Lee Chennault (died 2018).
  • 1929 – Mario Ghella, Italian racing cyclist.
  • 1930 – Donn F. Eisele, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (died 1987).
  • 1937 – Martti Ahtisaari, Finnish captain and politician, 10th President of Finland, Nobel Prize laureate.
  • 1940 – Wilma Rudolph, American runner (died 1994).
  • 1945 – John Garang, Sudanese colonel and politician, President of Southern Sudan (died 2005).
  • 1984 – Takeshi Matsuda, Japanese swimmer.
  • 1987 – Alessia Filippi, Italian swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 79 – Vespasian, Roman general and emperor (born AD 9).
  • 1537 – Pedro de Mendoza, Spanish conquistador (born 1487).
  • 1565 – Dragut, Ottoman admiral (born 1485).
  • 1582 – Shimizu Muneharu, Japanese commander (born 1537).
  • 1615 – Mashita Nagamori, Japanese daimyō (born 1545).
  • 1779 – Mikael Sehul, Ethiopian warlord (born 1691).
  • 1954 – Salih Omurtak, Turkish general (born 1889).
  • 1969 – Volmari Iso-Hollo, Finnish runner (born 1907).
  • 1970 – Roscoe Turner, American soldier and pilot (born 1895).
  • 2012 – Frank Chee Willeto, American soldier and politician, 4th Vice President of the Navajo Nation (born 1925).
  • 2013 – Frank Kelso, American admiral and politician, United States Secretary of the Navy (born 1933).
  • 2013 – Sharon Stouder, American swimmer (born 1948).
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