On This Day … 14 June [2022]


  • 1158 – The city of Munich is founded by Henry the Lion on the banks of the river Isar.
  • 1216 – First Barons’ War: Prince Louis of France takes the city of Winchester, abandoned by John, King of England, and soon conquers over half of the kingdom.
  • 1276 – While taking exile in Fuzhou, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Song dynasty court hold the coronation ceremony for Emperor Duanzong.
  • 1285 – Second Mongol invasion of Vietnam: Forces led by Prince Trần Quang Khải of the Trần dynasty destroy most of the invading Mongol naval fleet in a battle at Chuong Duong.
  • 1287 – Kublai Khan defeats the force of Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes in East Mongolia and Manchuria.
  • 1381 – Richard II of England meets leaders of Peasants’ Revolt at Mile End.
    • The Tower of London is stormed by rebels who enter without resistance.
  • 1404 – Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndŵr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allies himself with the French against King Henry IV of England.
  • 1645 – English Civil War: Battle of Naseby: Twelve thousand Royalist forces are beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.
  • 1667 – The Raid on the Medway by the Dutch fleet in the Second Anglo-Dutch War ends. It had lasted for five days and resulted in the worst ever defeat of the Royal Navy.
  • 1690 – King William III of England (William of Orange) lands in Ireland to confront the former King James II.
  • 1775 – American Revolutionary War: the Continental Army is established by the Continental Congress, marking the birth of the United States Armed Forces.
  • 1777 – The Second Continental Congress passes the Flag Act of 1777 adopting the Stars and Stripes as the Flag of the United States.
  • 1789 – Mutiny on the Bounty: HMS Bounty mutiny survivors including Captain William Bligh and 18 others reach Timor after a nearly 7,400 km (4,600 mi) journey in an open boat.
  • 1800 – The French Army of First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Marengo in Northern Italy and re-conquers Italy (refer to French Revolutionary Wars).
  • 1807 – Emperor Napoleon’s French Grande Armée defeats the Russian Army at the Battle of Friedland in Poland (modern Russian Kaliningrad Oblast) ending the War of the Fourth Coalition (refer to Napoleonic Wars).
  • 1821 – Badi VII, king of Sennar, surrenders his throne and realm to Ismail Pasha, general of the Ottoman Empire, bringing the 300 year old Sudanese kingdom to an end.
  • 1830 – Beginning of the French colonisation of Algeria: Thirty-four thousand French soldiers begin their invasion of Algiers, landing 27 kilometres west at Sidi Fredj.
  • 1846 – Bear Flag Revolt begins: Anglo settlers in Sonoma, California, start a rebellion against Mexico and proclaim the California Republic.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Winchester: A Union garrison is defeated by the Army of Northern Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley town of Winchester, Virginia.
  • 1863 – Second Assault on the Confederate works at the Siege of Port Hudson during the American Civil War.
  • 1888 – The White Rajahs territories become the British protectorate of Sarawak.
  • 1900 – Hawaii becomes a United States territory.
  • 1900 – The second German Naval Law calls for the Imperial German Navy to be doubled in size, resulting in an Anglo-German naval arms race.
  • 1926 – Brazil leaves the League of Nations.
  • 1940 – World War II: The German occupation of Paris begins (refer to the Battle of France, 1940).
  • 1940 – The Soviet Union presents an ultimatum to Lithuania resulting in Lithuanian loss of independence.
  • 1940 – Seven hundred and twenty-eight Polish political prisoners from Tarnów become the first inmates of the Auschwitz concentration camp.
  • 1941 – June deportation: the first major wave of Soviet mass deportations and murder of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, begins.
  • 1944 – World War II: After several failed attempts, the British Army abandons Operation Perch, its plan to capture the German-occupied town of Caen.
  • 1945 – World War II: Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army liberate the captured in Ilocos Sur and start the Battle of Bessang Pass in Northern Luzon.
  • 1949 – Albert II, a rhesus monkey, rides a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 134 km (83 miles), thereby becoming the first mammal and first monkey in space.
  • 1959 – Dominican exiles depart from Cuba and land in the Dominican Republic to overthrow the totalitarian government of Rafael Trujillo.
    • All but four are killed or executed.
  • 1982 – Falklands War: Argentine forces in the capital Stanley conditionally surrender to British forces.
  • 1985 – Five members of the European Economic Community (EEC) sign the Schengen Agreement establishing a free travel zone with no border controls.
  • 2014 – A Ukraine military Ilyushin Il-76 airlifter is shot down, killing all 49 people on board.
  • Liberation Day (Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

People (Births)

  • 1838 – Yamagata Aritomo, Japanese Field Marshal and politician, 3rd and 9th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1922).
  • 1868 – Anna B. Eckstein, German peace activist (d. 1947).
  • 1871 – Hermanus Brockmann, Dutch rower (d. 1936).
  • 1879 – Arthur Duffey, American sprinter and coach (d. 1955).
  • 1884 – Georg Zacharias, German swimmer (d. 1953).
  • 1898 – Theobald Wolfe Tone FitzGerald, Irish Army Officer and painter (d. 1962).
  • 1923 – Green Wix Unthank, American soldier, lawyer, and judge (d. 2013).
  • 1928 – Ernesto “Che” Guevara, Argentinian-Cuban physician, author, guerrilla leader and politician (d. 1967).
  • 1945 – Richard Stebbins, American sprinter and educator.
  • 1960 – Tonie Campbell, American hurdler.
  • 1972 – Danny McFarlane, Jamaican hurdler and sprinter.
  • 1982 – Nicole Irving, Australian swimmer.
  • 1984 – Yury Prilukov, Russian swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 809 – Ōtomo no Otomaro, Japanese general (b. 731).
  • 1583 – Shibata Katsuie, Japanese samurai (b. 1522).
  • 1800 – Louis Desaix, French general (b. 1768).
  • 1800 – Jean-Baptiste Kléber, French general (b. 1753).
  • 1801 – Benedict Arnold, American general during the American Revolution later turned British spy (b. 1741).
  • 1864 – Leonidas Polk, American general and bishop (b. 1806).
  • 1907 – Bartolomé Masó, Cuban soldier and politician (b. 1830).
  • 1927 – Ottavio Bottecchia, Italian cyclist (b. 1894).
  • 1972 – Dündar Taşer, Turkish soldier and politician (b. 1925).
  • 2007 – Robin Olds, American general and pilot (b. 1922).
  • 2007 – Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Austrian politician, 9th President of Austria (b. 1918).
  • 2009 – William McIntyre, Canadian soldier, lawyer, and judge (b. 1918).

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