On This Day … 14 May [2022]

Events

  • 1097 – The Siege of Nicaea begins during the First Crusade.
  • 1264 – Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured and forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, making Simon de Montfort the effective ruler of England.
  • 1509 – Battle of Agnadello: In northern Italy, French forces defeat the Republic of Venice.
  • 1607 – English colonists establish “James Fort,” which would become Jamestown, Virginia, the earliest permanent English settlement in the Americas.
  • 1608 – The Protestant Union, a coalition of Protestant German states, is founded to defend the rights, land and safety of each member against the Catholic Church and Catholic German states.
  • 1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral George Anson defeats the French at the First Battle of Cape Finisterre.
  • 1796 – Edward Jenner administers the first smallpox inoculation.
  • 1800 – The 6th United States Congress recesses, and the process of moving the Federal government of the United States from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C., begins the following day.
  • 1811 – Paraguay: Pedro Juan Caballero, Fulgencio Yegros and José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia start actions to depose the Spanish governor.
  • 1836 – The Treaties of Velasco are signed in Velasco, Texas.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Jackson takes place.
  • 1868 – Boshin War: The Battle of Utsunomiya Castle ends as former Tokugawa shogunate forces withdraw northward.
  • 1915 – The May 14 Revolt, a politico-military uprising, takes place in Lisbon, Portugal.
  • 1918 – Cape Town Mayor, Sir Harry Hands, inaugurates the Two-minute silence.
  • 1931 – Five unarmed civilians are killed in the Ådalen shootings, as the Swedish military is called in to deal with protesting workers.
  • 1940 – World War II: Rotterdam, Netherlands is bombed by the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany despite a ceasefire, killing about 900 people and destroying the historic city centre.
  • 1943 – World War II: A Japanese submarine sinks AHS Centaur off the coast of Queensland.
  • 1948 – Israel is declared to be an independent state and a provisional government is established. Immediately after the declaration, Israel is attacked by the neighbouring Arab states, triggering the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
  • 1955 – Cold War: Eight Communist bloc countries, including the Soviet Union, sign a mutual defence treaty called the Warsaw Pact.
  • 1980 – Salvadoran Civil War: the Sumpul River massacre occurs in Chalatenango, El Salvador.

People (Births)

  • 1630 – Katakura Kagenaga, Japanese samurai (d. 1681).
  • 1699 – Hans Joachim von Zieten, Prussian general (d. 1786).
  • 1761 – Samuel Dexter, American lawyer and politician, 4th United States Secretary of War, 3rd United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1816).
  • 1880 – Wilhelm List, German field marshal (d. 1971).
  • 1887 – Ants Kurvits, Estonian general and politician, 10th Estonian Minister of War (d. 1943).
  • 1905 – Herbert Morrison, American soldier and journalist (d. 1989).
  • 1907 – Ayub Khan, Pakistani general and politician, 2nd President of Pakistan (d. 1974).
  • 1909 – Godfrey Rampling, English sprinter and colonel (d. 2009).
  • 1919 – John Hope, American soldier and meteorologist (d. 2002).
  • 1930 – William James, Australian general and physician (d. 2015).
  • 1940 – H. Jones, English colonel, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1982).
  • 1941 – Ada den Haan, Dutch swimmer.
  • 1949 – Johan Schans, Dutch swimmer.
  • 1949 – Klaus-Peter Thaler, German cyclist.
  • 1952 – Michael Fallon, Scottish politician, Secretary of State for Defence.
  • 1952 – Donald R. McMonagle, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1958 – Wilma Rusman, Dutch runner.
  • 1964 – James M. Kelly, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1967 – Natasha Kaiser-Brown, American sprinter and coach.
  • 1975 – Nicki Sørensen, Danish cyclist.
  • 1980 – Eugene Martineau, Dutch decathlete.
  • 1989 – Alina Talay, Belorussian hurdler.
  • 1994 – Pernille Blume, Danish swimmer.
  • 1994 – Bronte Campbell, Australian swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 934 – Zhu Hongzhao, Chinese general and governor.
  • 1219 – William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, English soldier and politician (b. 1147).
  • 1878 – Ōkubo Toshimichi, Japanese samurai and politician (b. 1830).
  • 1906 – Carl Schurz, German-American general, journalist, and politician, 13th United States Secretary of the Interior (b. 1829).
  • 1936 – Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, English field marshal and diplomat, British High Commissioner in Egypt (b. 1861).
  • 1945 – Wolfgang Lüth, Latvian-German captain (b. 1913).
  • 1954 – Heinz Guderian, Prussian-German general (b. 1888).
  • 1968 – Husband E. Kimmel, American admiral (b. 1882).
  • 1969 – Frederick Lane, Australian swimmer (b. 1888).
  • 1984 – Walter Rauff, German SS officer (b. 1906).
  • 1992 – Nie Rongzhen, Chinese general and politician, Mayor of Beijing (b. 1899).
  • 1994 – W. Graham Claytor Jr., American businessman, lieutenant, and politician, 15th United States Secretary of the Navy (b. 1914).
  • 2010 – Goh Keng Swee, Singaporean soldier and politician, 2nd Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (b. 1918).
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