On This Day … 25 April [2022]

Events

  • 404 BC – Admiral Lysander and King Pausanias of Sparta blockade Athens and bring the Peloponnesian War to a successful conclusion.
  • 775 – The Battle of Bagrevand puts an end to an Armenian rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate. Muslim control over the South Caucasus is solidified and its Islamization begins, while several major Armenian nakharar families lose power and their remnants flee to the Byzantine Empire.
  • 799 – After mistreatment and disfigurement by the citizens of Rome, pope Leo III flees to the Frankish court of king Charlemagne at Paderborn for protection.
  • 1134 – The name Zagreb was mentioned for the first time in the Felician Charter relating to the establishment of the Zagreb Bishopric around 1094.
  • 1607 – Eighty Years’ War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar.
  • 1644 – Transition from Ming to Qing: The Chongzhen Emperor, the last Emperor of Ming China, commits suicide during a peasant rebellion led by Li Zicheng.
  • 1707 – A coalition of Britain, the Netherlands and Portugal is defeated by a Franco-Spanish army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • 1792 – “La Marseillaise” (the French national anthem) is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.
  • 1829 – Charles Fremantle arrives in HMS Challenger off the coast of modern-day Western Australia prior to declaring the Swan River Colony for the British Empire.
  • 1846 – Thornton Affair: Open conflict begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the Mexican-American War.
  • 1849 – The Governor General of Canada, Lord Elgin, signs the Rebellion Losses Bill, outraging Montreal’s English population and triggering the Montreal Riots.
  • 1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Forces under US Admiral David Farragut demand the surrender of the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Marks’ Mills, a force of 8,000 Confederate soldiers attacks 1,800 Union soldiers and a large number of wagon teamsters, killing or wounding 1,500 Union combatants.
  • 1882 – French and Vietnamese troops clashed in Tonkin, when Commandant Henri Rivière seized the citadel of Hanoi with a small force of marine infantry.
  • 1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Congress declares that a state of war between the US and Spain has existed since 21 April when an American naval blockade of the Spanish colony of Cuba began.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Battle of Gallipoli begins: The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by British, French, Indian, Newfoundland, Australian and New Zealand troops, begins with landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles.
  • 1916 – Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at ANZAC Cove.
  • 1920 – At the San Remo conference, the principal Allied Powers of World War I adopt a resolution to determine the allocation of Class “A” League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East.
  • 1945 – World War II: Elbe Day: United States and Soviet reconnaissance troops meet in Torgau and Strehla along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two.
  • 1945 – World War II: Liberation Day (Italy): The National Liberation Committee for Northern Italy calls for a general uprising against the German occupation and the Italian Social Republic.
  • 1945 – United Nations Conference on International Organisation: Founding negotiations for the United Nations begin in San Francisco.
  • 1945 – World War II: The last German troops retreat from Finland’s soil in Lapland, ending the Lapland War. Military acts of Second World War end in Finland.
  • 1951 – Korean War: Assaulting Chinese forces are forced to withdraw after heavy fighting with UN forces, primarily made up of Australian and Canadian troops, at the Battle of Kapyong.
  • 1953 – Francis Crick and James Watson publish “Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid” describing the double helix structure of DNA.
  • 1954 – The first practical solar cell is publicly demonstrated by Bell Telephone Laboratories.
  • 1960 – The United States Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
  • 1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.
  • 1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive: The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.
  • 1974 – Carnation Revolution: A leftist military coup in Portugal overthrows the authoritarian-conservative Estado Novo regime and establishes a democratic government.
  • 1982 – Israel completes its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula per the Camp David Accords (refer to Arab-Israeli Conflict).
  • 1983 – Cold War: American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.
  • 1988 – In Israel, John Demjanjuk (a former concentration camp guard) is sentenced to death for war crimes committed in World War II.
  • 2001 – President George W. Bush pledges US military support in the event of a Chinese attack on Taiwan.
  • 2005 – The final piece of the Obelisk of Axum is returned to Ethiopia after being stolen by the invading Italian army in 1937.
  • Anzac Day (Australia, New Zealand, and Tonga).
  • Freedom Day (Portugal); Refer to Carnation Revolution above.
  • Liberation Day (Italy).
  • Liberation Day (South Georgia).
  • Military Foundation Day (North Korea).
  • Sinai Liberation Day (Egypt).

People (Births)

  • 1599 – Oliver Cromwell, English general and politician, Lord Protector of Great Britain (d. 1658).
  • 1621 – Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, English soldier and politician (d. 1679).
  • 1725 – Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, English admiral and politician (d. 1786).
  • 1767 – Nicolas Oudinot, French general (d. 1847).
  • 1874 – Ernest Webb, English-Canadian race walker (d. 1937).
  • 1878 – William Merz, American gymnast and triathlete (d. 1946).
  • 1900 – Gladwyn Jebb, English politician and diplomat, Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 1996).
  • 1906 – William J. Brennan Jr., American colonel and Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (d. 1997).
  • 1910 – Arapeta Awatere, New Zealand interpreter, military leader, politician, and murderer (d. 1976).
  • 1913 – Nikolaos Roussen, Greek naval captain (d. 1944).
  • 1924 – Ingemar Johansson, Swedish race walker (d. 2009).
  • 1930 – Godfrey Milton-Thompson, English admiral and surgeon (d. 2012).
  • 1946 – Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Russian colonel, lawyer, and politician (d. 2022).
  • 1957 – Theo de Rooij, Dutch cyclist and manager.
  • 1967 – Angel Martino, American swimmer.
  • 1969 – Jon Olsen, American swimmer.
  • 1978 – Matt Walker, English swimmer.
  • 1980 – Alejandro Valverde, Spanish cyclist.
  • 1981 – John McFall, English sprinter.
  • 1984 – Isaac Kiprono Songok, Kenyan runner.
  • 1986 – Thin Seng Hon, Cambodian Paralympic athlete.
  • 1986 – Gwen Jorgensen, American triathlete.
  • 1986 – Claudia Rath, German heptathlete.
  • 1994 – Omar McLeod, Jamaican hurdler.
  • 1996 – Mack Horton, Australian swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 1928 – Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, Russian general (b. 1878).
  • 1995 – Lev Shankovsky, Ukrainian military historian (b. 1903).
  • 2003 – Samson Kitur, Kenyan runner (b. 1966).
  • 2014 – William Judson Holloway Jr., American soldier, lawyer, and judge (b. 1923).

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