On This Day … 16 April [2022]


  • 69 – Defeated by Vitellius’ troops at Bedriacum, Otho commits suicide.
  • 73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the First Jewish-Roman War.
  • 1346 – Stefan Dušan, “the Mighty”, is crowned Emperor of the Serbs at Skopje, his empire occupying much of the Balkans.
  • 1520 – The Revolt of the Comuneros begins in Spain against the rule of Charles V.
  • 1582 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.
  • 1746 – The Battle of Culloden is fought between the French-supported Jacobites and the British Hanoverian forces commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, in Scotland.
    • After the battle many highland traditions were banned and the Highlands of Scotland were cleared of inhabitants.
  • 1799 – French Revolutionary Wars: The Battle of Mount Tabor: Napoleon drives Ottoman Turks across the River Jordan near Acre.
  • 1818 – The United States Senate ratifies the Rush-Bagot Treaty, limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
  • 1838 – The French Army captures Veracruz in the Pastry War.
  • 1847 – Shooting of a Māori by an English sailor results in the opening of the Wanganui Campaign of the New Zealand Wars.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Battle at Lee’s Mills in Virginia.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The District of Columbia Compensated Emancipation Act, a bill ending slavery in the District of Columbia, becomes law.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: During the Vicksburg Campaign, gunboats commanded by acting Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter run downriver past Confederate artillery batteries at Vicksburg.
  • 1878 – The Senate of the Grand Duchy of Finland issued a declaration establishing a city of Kotka on the southern part islands from the old Kymi parish.
  • 1917 – Russian Revolution: Vladimir Lenin returns to Petrograd, Russia, from exile in Switzerland.
  • 1919 – Mohandas Gandhi organises a day of “prayer and fasting” in response to the killing of Indian protesters in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre by the British colonial troops three days earlier.
  • 1919 – Polish-Lithuanian War: The Polish Army launches the Vilna offensive to capture Vilnius in modern Lithuania.
  • 1922 – The Treaty of Rapallo, pursuant to which Germany and the Soviet Union re-establish diplomatic relations, is signed.
  • 1925 – During the Communist St Nedelya Church assault in Sofia, Bulgaria, 150 are killed and 500 are wounded.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Italian-German Tarigo convoy is attacked and destroyed by British ships.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Nazi-affiliated Ustaše is put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis powers after Operation 25 is effected.
  • 1942 – King George VI awarded the George Cross to the people of Malta in appreciation of their heroism.
  • 1943 – Albert Hofmann accidentally discovers the hallucinogenic effects of the research drug LSD.
    • He intentionally takes the drug three days later on 19 April.
  • 1944 – World War II: Allied forces start bombing Belgrade, killing about 1,100 people.
    • This bombing fell on the Orthodox Christian Easter.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Red Army begins the final assault on German forces around Berlin, with nearly one million troops fighting in the Battle of the Seelow Heights.
  • 1945 – World War II: The US Army liberates Nazi Sonderlager (high security) prisoner-of-war camp Oflag IV-C (better known as Colditz).
  • 1945 – World War II: More than 7,000 die when the German refugee ship Goya is sunk by a Soviet submarine.
  • 1947 – Bernard Baruch first applies the term “Cold War” to describe the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  • 1948 – The Organization of European Economic Co-operation is formed.
  • 1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
  • 1996 – Arab-Israeli Conflict: Israel strikes a civilian house in Nabatieh Fawka, Lebanon, killing 9 people, including 7 children.
  • 2001 – India and Bangladesh begin a five-day border conflict, but are unable to resolve the disputes about their border.
  • 2013 – The 2013 Baga massacre is started when Boko Haram militants engage government soldiers in Baga.
  • Memorial Day for the Victims of the Holocaust (Hungary).
  • Remembrance of Chemical Attack on Balisan and Sheikh Wasan (Iraqi Kurdistan).

People (Births)

  • 1682 – John Hadley, English mathematician, invented the octant (d. 1744).
  • 1730 – Henry Clinton, English general and politician (d. 1795).
  • 1786 – John Franklin, English admiral and politician, fourth Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen’s Land (d. 1847).
  • 1800 – George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, English field marshal and politician (d. 1888).
  • 1821 – Ford Madox Brown, French-English soldier and painter (d. 1893).
  • 1865 – Harry Chauvel, Australian general (d. 1945).
  • 1867 – Wilbur Wright, American inventor (d. 1912).
  • 1874 – Jōtarō Watanabe, Japanese general (d. 1936).
  • 1922 – Lawrence N. Guarino, American colonel (d. 2014).
  • 1952 – Esther Roth-Shahamorov, Israeli sprinter and hurdler.
  • 1956 – David M. Brown, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003).
  • 1968 – Rüdiger Stenzel, German runner.
  • 1984 – Kerron Stewart, Jamaican sprinter.
  • 1990 – Tony McQuay, American sprinter.

People (Deaths)

  • 1375 – John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English nobleman and soldier (b. 1347).
  • 1925 – Stefan Nerezov, Bulgarian general (b. 1867).
  • 1937 – Jay Johnson Morrow, American military engineer and politician, third Governor of the Panama Canal Zone (b. 1870).
  • 1947 – Rudolf Höss, German SS officer (b. 1900).
  • 1961 – Carl Hovland, American psychologist and academic (b. 1912).
  • 1965 – Francis Balfour, English soldier and colonial administrator (b. 1884).
  • 1978 – Lucius D. Clay, American officer and military governor in occupied Germany (b. 1898).
  • 1988 – Khalil al-Wazir, Palestinian commander, founded Fatah (b. 1935).
  • 2007 – Maria Lenk, Brazilian swimmer (b. 1915).
  • 2010 – Rasim Delić, Bosnian general and convicted war criminal (b. 1949).

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