On This Day … 11 April [2022]

Events

  • 1241 – Batu Khan defeats Béla IV of Hungary at the Battle of Mohi.
  • 1512 – War of the League of Cambrai: Franco-Ferrarese forces led by Gaston de Foix and Alfonso I d’Este win the Battle of Ravenna against the Papal-Spanish forces.
  • 1544 – Italian War of 1542-1546: A French army defeats Habsburg forces at the Battle of Ceresole, but fails to exploit its victory.
  • 1713 – War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War): Treaty of Utrecht.
  • 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: An incomplete British victory over the French fleet at the Battle of the Basque Roads results in the court-martial of James, Lord Gambier.
  • 1814 – Napoleonic Wars: The Treaty of Fontainebleau ends the War of the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon Bonaparte, and forces him to abdicate unconditionally for the first time.
  • 1856 – Second Battle of Rivas: Juan Santamaría burns down the hostel where William Walker’s filibusters are holed up.
  • 1868 – Former shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu surrenders Edo Castle to Imperial forces, marking the end of the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • 1908 – SMS Blücher, the last armoured cruiser to be built by the Imperial German Navy, is launched.
  • 1909 – The city of Tel Aviv is founded.
  • 1921 – Emir Abdullah establishes the first centralised government in the newly created British protectorate of Transjordan.
  • 1935 – Stresa Front: opening of the conference between the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, the Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and the French Minister for Foreign Affairs Pierre Laval to condemn the German violations of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • 1945 – World War II: American forces liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp.
  • 1951 – Korean War: President Truman relieves Douglas MacArthur of the command of American forces in Korea and Japan.
  • 1951 – The Stone of Scone, the stone upon which Scottish monarchs were traditionally crowned, is found on the site of the altar of Arbroath Abbey.
    • It had been taken by Scottish nationalist students from its place in Westminster Abbey.
  • 1957 – United Kingdom agrees to Singaporean self-rule.
  • 1961 – The trial of Adolf Eichmann (a major organiser of the Holocaust) begins in Jerusalem.
  • 1964 – Brazilian Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco is elected president by the National Congress.
  • 1979 – Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is deposed.
  • 1987 – The London Agreement is secretly signed between Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres and King Hussein of Jordan.
  • 1990 – Customs officers in Middlesbrough, England, seize what they believe to be the barrel of a massive gun on a ship bound for Iraq (refer to Project Babylon).
  • 2001 – The detained crew of a United States EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, China after a collision with a J-8 fighter, is released.
  • 2006 – Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces Iran’s claim to have successfully enriched uranium.
  • 2018 – An Ilyushin Il-76 which was owned and operated by the Algerian Air Force crashes near Boufarik, Algeria, killing 257.

People (Births)

  • 1869 – Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor, designed the Nobel Peace Prize medal (d. 1943).
  • 1871 – Gyula Kellner, Hungarian runner (d. 1940).
  • 1873 – Edward Lawson, English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1955).
  • 1910 – António de Spínola, Portuguese general and politician, 14th President of Portugal (d. 1996).
  • 1917 – David Westheimer, American soldier, journalist, and author (d. 2005).
  • 1918 – Richard Wainwright, English soldier and politician (d. 2003).
  • 1920 – William Royer, American soldier and politician (d. 2013).
  • 1922 – Arved Viirlaid, Estonian-Canadian soldier and author (d. 2015).
  • 1925 – Yuriy Lituyev, Russian hurdler and commander (d. 2000).
  • 1926 – David Manker Abshire, American commander and diplomat, United States Permanent Representative to NATO (d. 2014).
  • 1942 – Anatoly Berezovoy, Russian colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2014).
  • 1954 – Aleksandr Averin, Azerbaijani cyclist and coach.
  • 1961 – Nobuaki Kakuda, Japanese martial artist.
  • 1964 – Patrick Sang, Kenyan runner.
  • 1977 – Ivonne Teichmann, German runner.
  • 1986 – Lena Schöneborn, German pentathlete.
  • 1989 – Torrin Lawrence, American sprinter (d. 2014).

People (Deaths)

  • 1512 – Gaston de Foix, French military commander (b. 1489).
  • 1554 – Thomas Wyatt the Younger, English rebel leader (b. 1521).
  • 1856 – Juan Santamaría, Costa Rican soldier (b. 1831).
  • 1873 – Edward Canby, American general (b. 1817).
  • 1902 – Wade Hampton III, American general and politician, 77th Governor of South Carolina (b. 1818).
  • 1906 – Francis Pharcellus Church, American journalist and publisher, co-founded Armed Forces Journal and The Galaxy Magazine (b. 1839).
  • 1962 – George Poage, American hurdler and educator (b. 1880).
  • 1967 – Thomas Farrell, American general (b. 1891).
  • 2007 – Ronald Speirs, Scottish-American colonel (b. 1920).
  • 2008 – Merlin German, US Marine Corps sergeant (b. 1985).
  • 2012 – Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian soldier and politician, 1st President of Algeria (b. 1916).
  • 2015 – Hanut Singh, Indian general (b. 1933).
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