On This Day … 01 April [2022]


  • 1545 – Potosí, Bolivia, is founded after the discovery of huge silver deposits in the area.
  • 1572 – In the Eighty Years’ War, the Watergeuzen capture Brielle from the Seventeen Provinces, gaining the first foothold on land for what would become the Dutch Republic.
  • 1625 – A combined Spanish and Portuguese fleet of 52 ships commences the recapture of Bahia from the Dutch during the Dutch-Portuguese War.
  • 1833 – The Convention of 1833, a political gathering of settlers in Mexican Texas to help draft a series of petitions to the Mexican government, begins in San Felipe de Austin.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Union troops led by Philip Sheridan decisively defeat Confederate troops led by George Pickett, cutting the Army of Northern Virginia’s last supply line.
  • 1867 – Singapore becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1873 – The White Star steamer RMS Atlantic sinks off Nova Scotia, killing 547 in one of the worst marine disasters of the 19th century.
  • 1908 – The Territorial Force (renamed Territorial Army in 1920 and since renamed the Army Reserve) is formed as a volunteer reserve component of the British Army.
  • 1918 – The Royal Air Force is created by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
  • 1924 – Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years imprisonment for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch” but spends only nine months in jail.
  • 1924 – The Royal Canadian Air Force is formed.
  • 1937 – Aden becomes a British crown colony.
  • 1937 – The Royal New Zealand Air Force is formed as an independent service.
  • 1939 – Spanish Civil War: Generalísimo Francisco Franco of the Spanish State announces the end of the Spanish Civil War, when the last of the Republican forces surrender.
  • 1941 – Fântâna Albă massacre: Between 200 and 2,000 Romanian civilians are killed by Soviet Border Troops.
  • 1941 – A military coup in Iraq overthrows the regime of ‘Abd al-Ilah and installs Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as Prime Minister.
  • 1944 – Navigation errors lead to an accidental American bombing of the Swiss city of Schaffhausen.
  • 1945 – World War II: The Tenth United States Army attacks the Thirty-Second Japanese Army on Okinawa.
  • 1947 – The only mutiny in the history of the Royal New Zealand Navy begins.
  • 1948 – Cold War: Communist forces respond to the introduction of the Deutsche Mark by attempting to force the western powers to withdraw from Berlin.
  • 1948 – Faroe Islands gain autonomy from Denmark.
  • 1949 – Chinese Civil War: The Chinese Communist Party holds unsuccessful peace talks with the Nationalist Party in Beijing, after three years of fighting.
  • 1949 – The Government of Canada repeals Japanese-Canadian internment after seven years.
  • 1954 – United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorises the creation of the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
  • 1955 – The EOKA rebellion against the British Empire begins in Cyprus, with the goal of unifying with Greece.
  • 1964 – The British Admiralty, War Office and Air Ministry are replaced by a unified Defence Council of the United Kingdom.
  • 1969 – The Hawker Siddeley Harrier, the first operational fighter aircraft with Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing capabilities, enters service with the Royal Air Force.
  • 1971 – Bangladesh Liberation War: The Pakistan Army massacre over 1,000 people in Keraniganj Upazila, Bangladesh.
  • 1979 – Iran becomes an Islamic republic by a 99% vote, officially overthrowing the Shah.
  • 1986 – Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal) cadres attack a number of police stations in Kathmandu, seeking to incite a popular rebellion.
  • 1999 – Nunavut is established as a Canadian territory carved out of the eastern part of the Northwest Territories.
  • 2001 – An EP-3E United States Navy surveillance aircraft collides with a Chinese People’s Liberation Army Shenyang J-8 fighter jet.
    • The Chinese pilot ejected but is subsequently lost.
    • The Navy crew makes an emergency landing in Hainan, China and is detained.
  • 2001 – Former President of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević surrenders to police special forces, to be tried on war crimes charges.

People (Births)

  • 1823 – Simon Bolivar Buckner, American general and politician, 30th Governor of Kentucky (d. 1891).
  • 1906 – Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev, Russian engineer, founded the Yakovlev Design Bureau (d. 1989).
  • 1919 – Joseph Murray, American surgeon and soldier, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2012).
  • 1951 – John Abizaid, American general.
  • 1964 – Erik Breukink, Dutch cyclist and manager.
  • 1969 – Lev Lobodin, Ukrainian-Russian decathlete.
  • 1977 – Vitor Belfort, Brazilian-American boxer and mixed martial artist.
  • 1977 – Haimar Zubeldia, Spanish cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1431 – Nuno Álvares Pereira, Portuguese general (b. 1360).
  • 1839 – Benjamin Pierce, American soldier and politician, 11th Governor of New Hampshire (b. 1757).
  • 1878 – John C.W. Daly, English-Canadian soldier and politician (b. 1796).
  • 1890 – Alexander Mozhaysky, Russian soldier, pilot, and engineer (b. 1825).
  • 1924 – Lloyd Hildebrand, English cyclist (b. 1870).
  • 1924 – Stan Rowley, Australian sprinter (b. 1876).
  • 1950 – Recep Peker, Turkish soldier and politician, 6th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1889).
  • 1962 – Jussi Kekkonen, Finnish captain and businessman (b. 1910).
  • 2002 – Simo Häyhä, Finnish soldier and sniper (b. 1905).
  • 2006 – In Tam, Cambodian general and politician, 26th Prime Minister of Cambodia (b. 1916).
  • 2010 – Tzannis Tzannetakis, Greek soldier and politician, 175th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1927).
  • 2012 – Lionel Bowen, Australian soldier, lawyer, and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1922).
  • 2013 – Karen Muir, South African swimmer and physician (b. 1952).

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