On This Day … 15 March

Events

  • 474 BC – Roman consul Aulus Manlius Vulso celebrates an ovation for concluding the war against Veii and securing a forty years’ truce.
  • 45 BC – Caesar wins his last victory over Pompey’s armies, defeating the great general’s sons, Sextus and Gnaeus at Munda.
  • 44 BC – The assassination of Julius Caesar takes place.
  • 493 – Odoacer, the first barbarian King of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, is slain by Theoderic the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, while the two kings were feasting together.
  • 856 – Michael III, emperor of the Byzantine Empire, overthrows the regency of his mother, empress Theodora (wife of Theophilos) with support of the Byzantine nobility.
  • 897 – Al-Hadi ila’l-Haqq Yahya enters Sa’dah and founds the Zaydi Imamate of Yemen.
  • 933 – After a ten-year truce, German King Henry the Fowler defeats a Hungarian army at the Battle of Riade near the Unstrut river.
  • 1311 – Battle of Halmyros: The Catalan Company defeats Walter V, Count of Brienne to take control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in Greece.
  • 1783 – In an emotional speech in Newburgh, New York, George Washington asks his officers not to support the Newburgh Conspiracy.
    • The plea is successful and the threatened coup d’état never takes place.
  • 1848 – A revolution breaks out in Hungary, and the Habsburg rulers are compelled to meet the demands of the reform party.
    • National Day, celebrating the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 (Hungary).
  • 1874 – France and Vietnam sign the Second Treaty of Saigon, further recognising the full sovereignty of France over Cochinchina.
  • 1888 – Start of the Anglo-Tibetan War of 1888.
  • 1916 – United States President Woodrow Wilson sends 4,800 United States troops over the US-Mexico border to pursue Pancho Villa.
  • 1917 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates the Russian throne, ending the 304-year Romanov dynasty.
  • 1918 – Finnish Civil War: The battle of Tampere begins.
  • 1921 – Talaat Pasha, former Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire and chief architect of the Armenian genocide is assassinated in Berlin by a 23-year-old Armenian, Soghomon Tehlirian.
  • 1922 – After Egypt gains nominal independence from the United Kingdom, Fuad I becomes King of Egypt.
  • 1926 – The dictator Theodoros Pangalos is elected President of Greece without opposition.
  • 1933 – Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss keeps members of the National Council from convening, starting the Austrofascist dictatorship.
  • 1939 – Germany occupies Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939 – Carpatho-Ukraine declares itself an independent republic, but is annexed by Hungary the next day.
  • 1943 – World War II: Third Battle of Kharkov: The Germans retake the city of Kharkov from the Soviet armies in bitter street fighting.
  • 1945 – World War II: Soviet forces begin an offensive to push Germans from Upper Silesia.
  • 1978 – Somalia and Ethiopia signed a truce to end the Ethio-Somali War.
  • 1990 – Mikhail Gorbachev is elected as the first President of the Soviet Union.
  • 1991 – Cold War: The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany comes into effect, granting full sovereignty to the Federal Republic of Germany.
  • 2008 – Stockpiles of obsolete ammunition explode at an ex-military ammunition depot in the village of Gërdec, Albania, killing 26 people.
  • 2011 – Beginning of the Syrian Civil War.

People (Births)

  • 1493 – Anne de Montmorency, French captain and diplomat (d. 1567).
  • 1767 – Andrew Jackson, American general, judge, and politician, 7th President of the United States (d. 1845).
  • 1818 – Mariano Álvarez, Filipino general and politician (d. 1924).
  • 1866 – Johan Vaaler, Norwegian inventor, often erroneously identified as the inventor of the Paper clip (d. 1910).
  • 1874 – Eugène Fiset, Canadian physician, general, and politician, 18th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (d. 1951).
  • 1892 – James Basevi Ord, Mexican-American colonel (d. 1938).
  • 1897 – Jackson Scholz, American runner (d. 1986).
  • 1916 – Frank Coghlan, Jr., American actor, US Navy officer and pilot (d. 2009).
  • 1916 – Fadil Hoxha, Kosovar commander and politician, 2nd President of Kosovo (d. 2001).
  • 1932 – Alan Bean, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2018).
  • 1944 – Chi Cheng, Taiwanese runner and politician.
  • 1973 – Masayuki Naruse, Japanese wrestler and mixed martial artist.
  • 1982 – Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich, Kenyan runner.
  • 1983 – Golda Marcus, Salvadoran swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 44 BC – Julius Caesar, Roman general and statesman (b. 100 BC).
  • 220 – Cao Cao, Chinese general, warlord and statesman.
  • 1311 – Thomas III d’Autremencourt, Lord of Salona, Marshal of Achaea.
  • 1327 – Albert of Schwarzburg, grand preceptor of the Knights Hospitaller.
  • 1933 – Gustavo Jiménez, Peruvian colonel and politician, 73rd President of Peru (b. 1886).
  • 1939 – Luis Barceló, Spanish colonel (b. 1896).
  • 1944 – Otto von Below, Prussian general (b. 1857).
  • 1971 – Jean-Pierre Monseré, Belgian cyclist (b. 1948).
  • 1987 – Douglas Abbott, Canadian lawyer and politician, 10th Canadian Minister of National Defence (b. 1899).
  • 1988 – Dmitri Polyakov, Ukrainian general and spy (b. 1926).
  • 1999 – Guy D’Artois, Canadian soldier (b. 1917).
  • 2013 – Masamichi Noro, Japanese-French martial artist, founded Kinomichi (b. 1935).
  • 2014 – Bo Callaway, American soldier and politician, 11th United States Secretary of the Army (b. 1927).
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