- 197 – Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum, the bloodiest battle between Roman armies.
- 1649 – The Second Battle of Guararapes takes place, effectively ending Dutch colonization efforts in Brazil.
- 1674 – England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
- A provision of the agreement transfers the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam to England.
- 1819 – British explorer William Smith discovers the South Shetland Islands and claims them in the name of King George III.
- 1836 – King William IV signs Letters Patent establishing the Province of South Australia.
- 1846 – In Austin, Texas the newly formed Texas state government is officially installed.
- The Republic of Texas government officially transfers power to the State of Texas government following the annexation of Texas by the United States.
- 1878 – Thomas Edison patents the phonograph.
- 1913 – Pedro Lascuráin becomes President of Mexico for 45 minutes; this is the shortest term to date of any person as president of any country.
- 1915 – World War I: The first naval attack on the Dardanelles begins when a strong Anglo-French task force bombards Ottoman artillery along the coast of Gallipoli.
- 1942 – World War II: Nearly 250 Japanese warplanes attack the northern Australian city of Darwin, killing 243 people.
- 1942 – World War II: United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs executive order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese Americans to internment camps.
- 1943 – World War II: Battle of Kasserine Pass in Tunisia begins.
- 1945 – World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima: About 30,000 United States Marines land on the island of Iwo Jima.
- 1948 – The Conference of Youth and Students of Southeast Asia Fighting for Freedom and Independence convenes in Calcutta.
- 1954 – Transfer of Crimea: The Soviet Politburo of the Soviet Union orders the transfer of the Crimean Oblast from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.
- 1959 – The United Kingdom grants Cyprus independence, which is formally proclaimed on 16 August 1960.
- 1965 – Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, and a communist spy of the North Vietnamese Viet Minh, along with Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Trần Thiện Khiêm, all Catholics, attempt a coup against the military junta of the Buddhist Nguyễn Khánh (refer to the Vietnam War).
- 1976 – Executive Order 9066, which led to the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps, is rescinded by President Gerald Ford’s Proclamation 4417.
- 1978 – Egyptian forces raid Larnaca International Airport in an attempt to intervene in a hijacking, without authorisation from the Republic of Cyprus authorities.
- The Cypriot National Guard and Police forces kill 15 Egyptian commandos and destroy the Egyptian C-130 transport plane in open combat.
- 1986 – Akkaraipattu massacre: the Sri Lankan Army massacres 80 Tamil farm workers in eastern Sri Lanka.
- 2003 – An Ilyushin Il-76 military aircraft crashes near Kerman, Iran, killing 275.
- Armed Forces Day (Mexico).
- 1630 – Shivaji, Indian warrior-king and the founder of Maratha Empire.
- 1798 – Allan MacNab, Canadian soldier, lawyer, and politician, Premier of Canada West (d. 1862).
- 1872 – Johan Pitka, Estonian admiral (d. 1944).
- 1880 – Álvaro Obregón, Mexican general and politician, 39th President of Mexico (d. 1928).
- 1932 – Joseph P. Kerwin, American captain, physician, and astronaut.
- 1709 – Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, Japanese shōgun (b. 1646).
- 1936 – Billy Mitchell, American general and pilot (b. 1879).
- 1945 – John Basilone, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1916).
- 1957 – Maurice Garin, Italian-French cyclist (b. 1871).
- 1959 – Willard Miller, American sailor, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1877).
- 2011 – Ollie Matson, American sprinter and football player (b. 1930).