On This Day … 28 January

Events

  • 98 – On the death of Nerva, Trajan is declared Roman emperor in Cologne, the seat of his government in lower Germany.
  • 814 – The death of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, brings about the accession of his son Louis the Pious as ruler of the Frankish Empire.
  • 1069 – Robert de Comines, appointed Earl of Northumbria by William the Conqueror, rides into Durham, England, where he is defeated and killed by rebels.
  • 1624 – Sir Thomas Warner founds the first British colony in the Caribbean, on the island of Saint Kitts.
  • 1671 – Original city of Panama (founded in 1519) is destroyed by a fire when privateer Henry Morgan sacks and sets fire to it.
    • The site of the previously devastated city is still in ruins.
  • 1846 – The Battle of Aliwal, India, is won by British troops commanded by Sir Harry Smith.
  • 1855 – A locomotive on the Panama Canal Railway runs from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean for the first time.
  • 1871 – Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice.
  • 1896 – Walter Arnold of East Peckham, Kent, becomes the first person to be convicted of speeding.
    • He was fined one shilling, plus costs, for speeding at 8 mph (13 km/h), thereby exceeding the contemporary speed limit of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).
  • 1908 – Members of the Portuguese Republican Party fail in their attempted coup d’état against the administrative dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco.
  • 1909 – United States troops leave Cuba, with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, after being there since the Spanish-American War.
  • 1915 – An act of the US Congress creates the United States Coast Guard as a branch of the United States Armed Forces.
  • 1918 – Finnish Civil War: The Red Guard rebels seize control of the capital, Helsinki; members of the Senate of Finland go underground.
  • 1920 – Foundation of the Spanish Legion.
  • 1932 – Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
  • 1933 – The name Pakistan is coined by Choudhry Rahmat Ali Khan and is accepted by Indian Muslims who then thereby adopted it further for the Pakistan Movement seeking independence.
  • 1941 – Franco-Thai War: Final air battle of the conflict.
    • A Japanese-mediated armistice goes into effect later in the day.
  • 1945 – World War II: Supplies begin to reach the Republic of China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
  • 1958 – The Lego company patents the design of its Lego bricks, still compatible with bricks produced today.
  • 1964 – An unarmed United States Air Force T-39 Sabreliner on a training mission is shot down over Erfurt, East Germany, by a Soviet MiG-19.
  • 1965 – The current design of the Flag of Canada is chosen by an act of Parliament.
  • 1982 – US Army general James L. Dozier is rescued by Italian anti-terrorism forces from captivity by the Red Brigades.
  • Army Day (Armenia).

People (Births)

  • 1712 – Tokugawa Ieshige, Japanese shōgun (d. 1761).
  • 1833 – Charles George Gordon, English general and politician (d. 1885).
  • 1906 – Pat O’Callaghan, Irish athlete (d. 1991).
  • 1906 – Markos Vafiadis, Greek general and politician (d. 1992).
  • 1939 – John M. Fabian, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1950 – David C. Hilmers, American colonel, physician, and astronaut.
  • 1951 – Leonid Kadeniuk, Ukrainian general, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2018).
  • 1969 – Giorgio Lamberti, Italian swimmer.
  • 1972 – Léon van Bon, Dutch cyclist.
  • 1985 – Libby Trickett, Australian swimmer.
  • 1986 – Jessica Ennis-Hill, English heptathlete and hurdler.

People (Deaths)

  • 919 – Zhou Dewei, Chinese general.
  • 947 – Jing Yanguang, Chinese general (b. 892).
  • 1142 – Yue Fei, Chinese general (b. 1103).
  • 1697 – Sir John Fenwick, 3rd Baronet, English general and politician (b. 1645).
  • 1832 – Augustin Daniel Belliard, French general (b. 1769).
  • 1918 – John McCrae, Canadian soldier, physician, and author (b. 1872).
  • 1942 – Edward Siegler, American gymnast and triathlete (b. 1881).
  • 1945 – Roza Shanina, Russian sergeant and sniper (b. 1924).
  • 1948 – Hans Aumeier, German SS officer (b. 1906).
  • 1963 – Gustave Garrigou, French cyclist (b. 1884).
  • 1965 – Maxime Weygand, Belgian-French general (b. 1867).
  • 1996 – Space Shuttle Challenger crew:
    • Gregory Jarvis, American captain, engineer, and astronaut (b. 1944).
    • Christa McAuliffe, American educator and astronaut (b. 1948).
    • Ronald McNair, American physicist and astronaut (b. 1950).
    • Ellison Onizuka, American engineer and astronaut (b. 1946).
    • Judith Resnik, American colonel, engineer, and astronaut (b. 1949).
    • Dick Scobee, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1939).
    • Michael J. Smith, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1945).
  • 2002 – Gustaaf Deloor, Belgian cyclist and soldier (b. 1913).
  • 2003 – Mieke Pullen, Dutch runner (b. 1957).
  • 2004 – Lloyd M. Bucher, American captain (b. 1927).
  • 2007 – Carlo Clerici, Swiss cyclist (b. 1929).
  • 2007 – Yelena Romanova, Russian runner (b. 1963).
  • 2015 – Suraj Abdurrahman, Nigerian general, architect, and engineer (b. 1954).
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