On This Day … 10 January

Events

  • 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signalling the start of civil war.
  • 1072 – Robert Guiscard conquers Palermo in Sicily for the Normans.
  • 1430 – Philip the Good, the Duke of Burgundy, establishes the Order of the Golden Fleece, the most prestigious, exclusive, and expensive order of chivalry in the world.
  • 1475 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.
  • 1776 – American Revolution: Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense.
  • 1791 – The Siege of Dunlap’s Station begins near Cincinnati during the Northwest Indian War.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: Florida becomes the third state to secede from the Union.
  • 1916 – World War I: In the Erzurum Offensive, Russia defeats the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1920 – The Treaty of Versailles takes effect, officially ending World War I.
  • 1920 – League of Nations Covenant enters into force.
    • On 16 January, the organisation holds its first council meeting, in Paris.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Greek army captures Kleisoura.
  • 1946 – The first General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) assembles in the Methodist Central Hall, Westminster.
    • Fifty-one nations are represented.
  • 1946 – The United States Army Signal Corps successfully conducts Project Diana, bouncing radio waves off the Moon and receiving the reflected signals.
  • 1966 – Tashkent Declaration, a peace agreement between India and Pakistan signed that resolved the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.
  • 1972 – Sheikh Mujibur Rahman returns to the newly independent Bangladesh as president after spending over nine months in prison in Pakistan.
  • 1981 – Salvadoran Civil War: The FMLN launches its first major offensive, gaining control of most of Morazán and Chalatenango departments.
  • 1985 – Sandinista Daniel Ortega becomes president of Nicaragua and vows to continue the transformation to socialism and alliance with the Soviet Union and Cuba.
    • American policy continues to support the Contras in their revolt against the Nicaraguan government.
  • Margaret Thatcher Day (Falkland Islands).

People (Births)

  • 1644 – Louis François, duc de Boufflers, French general (d. 1711).
  • 1769 – Michel Ney, French general (d. 1815).
  • 1843 – Frank James, American soldier and criminal (d. 1915).
  • 1854 – Ramón Corral, Mexican general and politician, 6th Vice President of Mexico (d. 1912).
  • 1873 – George Orton, Canadian runner and hurdler (d. 1958).
  • 1892 – Melchior Wańkowicz, Polish soldier, journalist, and author (d. 1974).
  • 1893 – Albert Jacka, Australian captain, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1932).
  • 1913 – Mehmet Shehu, Albanian soldier and politician, 22nd Prime Minister of Albania (d. 1981).
  • 1920 – Roberto M. Levingston, Argentinian general and politician, 36th President of Argentina (d. 2015).
  • 1959 – Chandra Cheeseborough, American sprinter and coach.
  • 1987 – César Cielo, Brazilian swimmer.
  • 1988 – Leonard Patrick Komon, Kenyan runner.

People (Deaths)

  • 1761 – Edward Boscawen, English admiral and politician (b. 1711).
  • 1843 – Dimitrie Macedonski, Greek-Romanian captain and politician (b. 1780).
  • 1851 – Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal (b. 1775).
  • 1862 – Samuel Colt, American engineer and businessman, founded Colt’s Manufacturing Company (firearms manufacturer) (b. 1814).
  • 1901 – James Robert Dickson, English-Australian businessman and politician, 1st Australian Minister for Defence (b. 1832).
  • 1917 – Buffalo Bill, American soldier and hunter (b. 1846).
  • 1917 – Feliks Leparsky, Russian fencer and captain (b. 1875).
  • 1968 – Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Turkish general and politician, 6th Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey (b. 1882).
  • 1970 – Pavel Belyayev, Russian pilot and astronaut (b. 1925).
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