On This Day … 02 October

Events

  • 939 – Battle of Andernach: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes.
  • 1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.
  • 1470 – The Earl of Warwick’s rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.
  • 1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: Russian troops enter Kazan.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: John André, a British Army officer, is hanged as a spy by the Continental Army.
  • 1835 – Texas Revolution: Mexican troops attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Confederates defeat a Union attack on Saltville, Virginia. A massacre of wounded Union prisoners ensues.
  • 1870 – By plebiscite, the citizens of the Papal States accept annexation by the Kingdom of Italy.
  • 1937 – Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of Haitians living in the border region of the Dominican Republic.
  • 1942 – World War II: Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks HMS Curacoa, killing over 300 crewmen aboard Curacoa.
  • 1944 – World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.
  • 1958 – Guinea declares its independence from France.
    • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Guinea from France in 1958.
  • 1968 – Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz orders soldiers to suppress a demonstration of unarmed students, ten days before the start of the 1968 Summer Olympics.
  • 1980 – Michael Myers becomes the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the American Civil War.
  • 1992 – Military police storm the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil during a prison riot.
    • The resulting massacre leaves 111 prisoners dead.
  • 2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK.
  • 2007 – President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea goes to North Korea for an Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.
  • Gandhi’s birthday-related observances:

People (Births)

  • 1768 – William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, English general and politician (d. 1854).
  • 1800 – Nat Turner, American slave and uprising leader (d. 1831).
  • 1821 – Alexander P. Stewart, American general (d. 1908).
  • 1847 – Paul von Hindenburg, German field marshal and politician, 2nd President of Germany (d. 1934).
  • 1851 – Ferdinand Foch, French field marshal (d. 1929).
  • 1869 – Mahatma Gandhi, Indian freedom fighter, activist and philosopher (d. 1948).
  • 1882 – Boris Shaposhnikov, Russian colonel (d. 1945).
  • 1895 – Ruth Cheney Streeter, American colonel (d. 1990).
  • 1921 – Albert Scott Crossfield, American pilot and engineer (d. 2006).
  • 1946 – Sonthi Boonyaratglin, Thai general and politician.
  • 1967 – Frankie Fredericks, Namibian sprinter.
  • 1989 – George Nash, English rower.

People (Deaths)

  • 1678 – Wu Sangui, Qing Chinese general (b. 1612).
  • 1708 – Anne Jules de Noailles, French general (b. 1650).
  • 1746 – Josiah Burchett, English admiral and politician (b. 1666).
  • 1780 – John André, English soldier (b. 1750).
  • 1782 – Charles Lee, English-born American general (b. 1732).
  • 1786 – Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, English admiral and politician (b. 1725).
  • 1938 – Alexandru Averescu, Romanian military leader and politician, 24th Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1859).
  • 1955 – William R. Orthwein, American swimmer and water polo player (b. 1881).
  • 1973 – Paavo Nurmi, Finnish runner (b. 1897).
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