- 331 BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
- 1787 – Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.
- 1791 – First session of the French Legislative Assembly.
- 1795 – More than a year after the Battle of Sprimont, the Austrian Netherlands (present-day Belgium) are officially annexed by Revolutionary France.
- 1800 – Via the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain cedes Louisiana to France, which would sell the land to the United States thirty months later.
- 1814 – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw Europe’s political map after the defeat of Napoleon the previous spring.
- 1827 – Russo-Persian War: The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination of Armenia.
- 1887 – Balochistan is conquered by the British Empire.
- 1918 – World War I: The Egyptian Expeditionary Force captures Damascus.
- 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Francisco Franco is named head of the Nationalist government of Spain.
- 1936 – Spanish Civil War: The Central Committee of Antifascist Militias of Catalonia dissolves itself, handing control of Catalan defence militias over to the Generalitat.
- 1938 – Germany annexes the Sudetenland.
- 1939 – World War II: After a one-month siege, German troops occupy Warsaw.
- 1942 – World War II: USS Grouper torpedoes Lisbon Maru, not knowing that she is carrying British prisoners of war from Hong Kong.
- 1943 – World War II: After the Four Days of Naples, Allied troops enter the city.
- 1946 – Nazi leaders are sentenced at the Nuremberg trials.
- 1946 – The Daegu October Incident occurs in Allied-occupied Korea.
- 1947 – The North American F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
- 1949 – The People’s Republic of China is established.
- 1953 – A Mutual Defence Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea is concluded in Washington, D.C.
- 1960 – Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1961 – The United States Defence Intelligence Agency is formed, becoming the country’s first centralized military intelligence organisation.
- 1961 – East and West Cameroon merge to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.
- 1969 – Concorde breaks the sound barrier for the first time.
- 1971 – The first practical CT scanner is used to diagnose a patient.
- 1978 – Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1982 – Sony and Phillips launch the compact disc in Japan.
- On the same day, Sony released the model CDP-101 compact disc player, the first player of its kind.
- 1985 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Israel attacks the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) headquarters in Tunisia during “Operation Wooden Leg”.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Siege of Dubrovnik begins.
- 1994 – Palau enters a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
- 2000 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Palestinians protest the murder of 12-year-old Muhammad al-Durrah by the Israeli police in northern Israel, beginning the “October 2000 events”.
- 2001 – Militants attack the state legislature building in Kashmir, killing 38.
- 2014 – A series of explosions at a gunpowder plant in Bulgaria completely destroys the factory, killing 15 people.
- Armed Forces Day (South Korea).
- Ground Forces Day (Russia).
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Cyprus from United Kingdom in 1960.
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Nigeria from United Kingdom in 1960.
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Palau from the UN Trust Territory status in 1994.
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Tuvalu from United Kingdom in 1978.
- 1791 – Sergey Aksakov, Russian soldier and author (d. 1859).
- 1887 – Shizuichi Tanaka, Japanese general (d. 1945).
- 1924 – Jimmy Carter, American naval lieutenant, politician, 39th President of the United States, and Nobel Prize laureate.
- 1931 – Anwar Shamim, Pakistani general (d. 2013).
- 1953 – Grete Waitz, Norwegian runner and coach (d. 2011).
- 1973 – Rachid Chékhémani, French runner.
- 1973 – Jana Henke, German swimmer.
- 1957 – Abdülhalik Renda, Turkish civil servant, politician, and sixth Turkish Minister of National Defence (b. 1881).
- 1990 – Curtis LeMay, American general (b. 1906).
- 2012 – Shlomo Venezia, Greek-Italian Holocaust survivor and author (b. 1923).
- 2014 – Shlomo Lahat, Israeli general and politician (b. 1927).
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