- 904 – The warlord Zhu Quanzhong kills Emperor Zhaozong, the penultimate emperor of the Tang dynasty, after seizing control of the imperial government.
- 1236 – The Samogitians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in the Battle of Saule.
- 1499 – The Treaty of Basel concludes the Swabian War.
- 1586 – The Battle of Zutphen is a Spanish victory over the English and Dutch.
- 1711 – The Tuscarora War begins in present-day North Carolina.
- 1776 – Nathan Hale is hanged for spying during the American Revolution.
- 1789 – Battle of Rymnik: Alexander Suvorov’s Russian and allied army defeats superior Ottoman Empire forces.
- 1857 – The Russian warship Lefort capsizes and sinks during a storm in the Gulf of Finland, killing all 826 aboard.
- 1866 – The Battle of Curupayty is Paraguay’s only significant victory in the Paraguayan War.
- 1914 – A German submarine sinks three British cruisers over a seventy-minute period, killing almost 1,500 sailors.
- 1939 – World War II: A joint German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk is held to celebrate the successful invasion of Poland.
- 1941 – World War II: The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murders 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsia, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which about 24,000 Jews were executed.
- 1948 – Israeli-Palestine conflict: The All-Palestine Government is established by the Arab League.
- 1960 – The Sudanese Republic is renamed Mali after the withdrawal of Senegal from the Mali Federation.
- 1965 – The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the United Nations calls for a ceasefire.
- 1979 – A bright flash, resembling the detonation of a nuclear weapon, is observed near the Prince Edward Islands.
- Its cause is never determined.
- 1980 – Iraq invades Iran.
- 1993 – A Transair Georgian Airlines Tu-154 is shot down by a missile in Sukhumi, Georgia.
- 1995 – An E-3B AWACS crashes outside Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska after multiple bird strikes to two of the four engines soon after take-off; all 24 on board are killed.
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire in 1908.
- Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Mali from France in 1960.
- Resistance Fighting Day (Estonia).
- 1833 – Stephen D. Lee, American general and academic (d. 1908).
- 1841 – Andrejs Pumpurs, Latvian soldier and poet (d. 1902).
- 1862 – Anastasios Charalambis, Greek lieutenant general and politician, Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1949).
- 1882 – Wilhelm Keitel, German field marshal (d. 1946).
- 1906 – Ilse Koch, German war criminal (d. 1967).
- 1920 – Anders Lassen, Danish-English soldier, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1945).
- 1924 – Bernard Gauthier, French cyclist (d. 2018).
- 1924 – J. William Middendorf, American soldier and politician, 14th United States Secretary of the Navy.
- 1931 – George Younger, 4th Viscount Younger of Leckie, Scottish banker and politician, Secretary of State for Defence (d. 2003).
- 1948 – Denis Burke, Australian soldier and politician, 6th Chief Minister of the Northern Territory.
- 1949 – James Cartwright, American general.
- 1957 – Giuseppe Saronni, Italian cyclist and manager.
- 1961 – Liam Fox, Scottish physician and politician, Secretary of State for Defence.
- 1987 – Stefan Denifl, Austrian cyclist.
- 1992 – Philip Hindes, English track cyclist.
- 1776 – Nathan Hale, American soldier (b. 1755).
- 1828 – Shaka Zulu, Zulu chieftain and monarch of the Zulu Kingdom (b. 1787).
- 1914 – Alain-Fournier, French soldier and author (b. 1886).
- 2000 – Saburō Sakai, Japanese lieutenant and pilot (b. 1916).
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