- 1547 – The Battle of Pinkie, the last full-scale military confrontation between England and Scotland, resulting in a decisive victory for the forces of Edward VI.
- 1561 – Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima: Takeda Shingen defeats Uesugi Kenshin in the climax of their ongoing conflicts.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: Nathan Hale volunteers to spy for the Continental Army.
- 1798 – At the Battle of St. George’s Caye, British Honduras defeats Spain.
- 1813 – The United States defeats a British Fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812.
- 1846 – Elias Howe is granted a patent for the sewing machine.
- 1918 – Russian Civil War: The Red Army captures Kazan.
- 1919 – The Republic of German-Austria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, ceding significant territories to Italy, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia.
- 1937 – Nine nations attend the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
- 1939 – World War II: The submarine HMS Oxley is mistakenly sunk by the submarine HMS Triton near Norway and becomes the Royal Navy’s first loss of a submarine in the war.
- 1939 – World War II: The Canadian declaration of war on Germany receives royal assent.
- 1942 – World War II: The British Army carries out an amphibious landing on Madagascar to re-launch Allied offensive operations in the Madagascar Campaign.
- 1943 – World War II: In the course of Operation Achse, German troops begin their occupation of Rome.
- 1967 – The people of Gibraltar vote to remain a British dependency rather than becoming part of Spain.
- 1974 – Guinea-Bissau gains independence from Portugal.
- 2000 – Operation Barras successfully frees six British soldiers held captive for over two weeks and contributes to the end of the Sierra Leone Civil War.
- 2007 – Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif returns to Pakistan after seven years in exile, following a military coup in October 1999.
- 1550 – Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia, Spanish general (d. 1615).
- 1561 – Hernando Arias de Saavedra, Paraguayan-Argentinian soldier and politician (d. 1634).
- 1786 – Nicolás Bravo, Mexican soldier and politician, 11th President of Mexico (d. 1854).
- 1821 – William Jervois, English captain, engineer, and politician, 10th Governor of South Australia (d. 1897).
- 1836 – Joseph Wheeler, American general and politician (d. 1906).
- 1887 – Giovanni Gronchi, Italian soldier and politician, 3rd President of the Italian Republic (d. 1978).
- 1887 – Kenneth Mason, English soldier and geographer (d. 1976).
- 1896 – Ye Ting, Chinese general (d. 1946).
- 1907 – Alva R. Fitch, American general (d. 1989).
- 1908 – Angus Bethune, Australian soldier and politician, 33rd Premier of Tasmania (d. 2004).
- 1921 – John W. Morris, American general (d. 2013).
- 1933 – Yevgeny Khrunov, Russian colonel and astronaut (d. 2000).
- 1999 – Laura Taylor, Australian swimmer.
- 918 – Baldwin II, Frankish margrave (b. c. 865).
- 952 – Gao Xingzhou, Chinese general (b. 885).
- 1482 – Federico da Montefeltro, Italian warlord (b. 1422).
- 1591 – Richard Grenville, English admiral and politician (b. 1542).
- 1842 – William Hobson, Irish-New Zealand soldier and politician, 1st Governor of New Zealand (b. 1792).
- 1939 – Wilhelm Fritz von Roettig, German general (b. 1888).
- 2013 – Jack Vance, Canadian general (b. 1933).
- 2015 – Antoine Lahad, Lebanese general (b. 1927).
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