On This Day … 07 September

Events

  • 70 – A Roman army under Titus occupies and plunders Jerusalem.
  • 1191 – Third Crusade: Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.
  • 1228 – Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II lands in Acre, Israel, and starts the Sixth Crusade, which results in a peaceful restoration of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
  • 1571 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, is arrested for his role in the Ridolfi plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 1652 – Around 15,000 Han farmers and militia rebel against Dutch rule on Taiwan.
  • 1695 – Henry Every perpetrates one of the most profitable pirate raids in history with the capture of the Grand Mughal ship Ganj-i-Sawai. In response, Emperor Aurangzeb threatens to end all English trading in India.
  • 1706 – War of the Spanish Succession: Siege of Turin ends, leading to the withdrawal of French forces from North Italy.
  • 1776 – According to American colonial reports, Ezra Lee makes the world’s first submarine attack in the Turtle, attempting to attach a time bomb to the hull of HMS Eagle in New York Harbour (no British records of this attack exist).
  • 1778 – American Revolutionary War: France invades Dominica in the British West Indies, before Britain is even aware of France’s involvement in the war.
  • 1812 – Napoleonic Wars: French invasion of Russia: The Battle of Borodino, the bloodiest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, is fought near Moscow and results in a French victory.
  • 1822 – Dom Pedro I declares Brazil independent from Portugal on the shores of the Ipiranga Brook in São Paulo.
  • 1860 – Italian unification: Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Naples.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: Union troops under Quincy A. Gillmore capture Fort Wagner in Morris Island after a 7-week siege.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Atlanta is evacuated on orders of Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.
  • 1901 – The Boxer Rebellion in Qing dynasty (modern-day China) officially ends with the signing of the Boxer Protocol.
  • 1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Lusitania sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England, to New York City.
  • 1920 – Two newly purchased Savoia flying boats crash in the Swiss Alps en route to Finland where they were to serve with the Finnish Air Force, killing both crews.
  • 1932 – The Battle of Boquerón, the first major battle of the Chaco War, commences.
  • 1940 – Romania returns Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria under the Treaty of Craiova.
  • 1940 – World War II: The German Luftwaffe begins the Blitz, bombing London and other British cities for over 50 consecutive nights.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese marines are forced to withdraw during the Battle of Milne Bay.
  • 1943 – World War II: The German 17th Army begins its evacuation of the Kuban bridgehead (Taman Peninsula) in southern Russia and moves across the Strait of Kerch to the Crimea.
  • 1945 – World War II: Japanese forces on Wake Island, which they had held since December 1941, surrender to U.S. Marines.
  • 1945 – The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 is held.
  • 1965 – During the Indo-Pakistani War, China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: In a follow-up to August’s Operation Starlite, United States Marines and South Vietnamese forces initiate Operation Piranha on the Batangan Peninsula.
  • 1970 – Fighting begins between Arab guerrillas and government forces in Jordan.
  • 1977 – The Torrijos-Carter Treaties between Panama and the United States on the status of the Panama Canal are signed. The United States agrees to transfer control of the canal to Panama at the end of the 20th century.
  • 1984 – An explosion on board a Maltese patrol boat disposing of illegal fireworks at sea off Gozo kills seven soldiers and policemen.
  • Air Force Day (Pakistan).
  • Military Intelligence Day (Ukraine).

People (Births)

  • 1641 – Tokugawa Ietsuna, Japanese shōgun (d. 1680).
  • 1869 – Ben Viljoen, South African general (d. 1917).
  • 1892 – Eric Harrison, Australian soldier and politician, 27th Australian Minister for Defence (d. 1974).
  • 1893 – Leslie Hore-Belisha, English politician, Secretary of State for War (d. 1957).
  • 1913 – Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield, English soldier and courtier (d. 1999).
  • 1917 – Leonard Cheshire, English captain, pilot, and humanitarian (d. 1992).
  • 1919 – Briek Schotte, Belgian cyclist and coach (d. 2004).
  • 1921 – Peter A. Peyser, American soldier and politician (d. 2014).
  • 1924 – Daniel Inouye, American captain and politician, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 2012).
  • 1965 – Uta Pippig, German runner.
  • 1966 – Vladimir Andreyev, Russian race walker.
  • 1980 – Sara Carrigan, Australian cyclist.
  • 1983 – Philip Deignan, Irish cyclist.
  • 1994 – Elinor Barker, Welsh track cyclist.
  • 1999 – Laurie Jussaume, Canadian cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 251 – Sima Yi, Chinese general and politician (b. 179).
  • 355 – Claudius Silvanus, Roman general.
  • 934 – Meng Zhixiang, Chinese general (b. 874).
  • 1566 – Nikola Šubić Zrinski, Croatian general (b. 1506).
  • 1657 – Arvid Wittenberg, Swedish field marshal (b. 1606).
  • 1741 – Blas de Lezo, Spanish admiral (b. 1689).
  • 1840 – Jacques MacDonald, French general (b. 1765).
  • 1910 – William Holman Hunt, English painter and soldier (b. 1827).
  • 1940 – José Félix Estigarribia, Paraguayan soldier and politician, President of Paraguay (b. 1888).
  • 1973 – Lev Vladimirsky, Kazakhstani-Russian admiral (b. 1903).
  • 1990 – Earle E. Partridge, American general and pilot (b. 1900).
  • 1997 – Mobutu Sese Seko, Congolese soldier and politician, President of Zaire (b. 1930).
  • 2002 – Uziel Gal, German-Israeli colonel and gun designer, designed the Uzi (b. 1923).
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