On This Day … 04 September


  • 476 – Romulus Augustulus is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself “King of Italy”, thus ending the Western Roman Empire.
  • 929 – Battle of Lenzen: Slavic forces (the Redarii and the Obotrites) are defeated by a Saxon army near the fortified stronghold of Lenzen in Brandenburg.
  • 1260 – The Sienese Ghibellines, supported by the forces of Manfred, King of Sicily, defeat the Florentine Guelphs at Montaperti.
  • 1479 – The Treaty of Alcáçovas is signed by the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon on one side and Afonso V and his son, Prince John of Portugal.
  • 1607 – The Flight of the Earls takes place in Ireland.
  • 1774 – New Caledonia is first sighted by Europeans, during the second voyage of Captain James Cook.
  • 1781 – Los Angeles is founded as El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora La Reina de los Ángeles (The Village of Our Lady, the Queen of the Angels) by 44 Spanish settlers.
  • 1797 – Coup of 18 Fructidor in France.
  • 1800 – The French garrison in Valletta surrenders to British troops who had been called at the invitation of the Maltese.
    • The islands of Malta and Gozo become the Malta Protectorate.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: The Siege of Fort Harrison begins when the fort is set on fire.
  • 1839 – Battle of Kowloon: British vessels open fire on Chinese war junks enforcing a food sales embargo on the British community in China in the first armed conflict of the First Opium War.
  • 1862 – American Civil War Maryland Campaign: General Robert E. Lee takes the Army of Northern Virginia, and the war, into the North.
  • 1870 – Emperor Napoleon III of France is deposed and the Third Republic is declared.
  • 1886 – American Indian Wars: After almost 30 years of fighting, Apache leader Geronimo, with his remaining warriors, surrenders to General Nelson Miles in Arizona.
  • 1888 – George Eastman registers the trademark Kodak and receives a patent for his camera that uses roll film.
  • 1912 – Albanian rebels succeed in their revolt when the Ottoman Empire agrees to fulfil their demands.
  • 1923 – Maiden flight of the first US airship, the USS Shenandoah.
  • 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Largo Caballero forms a war cabinet to direct the republican war effort.
  • 1939 – World War II: William J. Murphy commands the first Royal Air Force attack on Germany.
  • 1941 – World War II: A German submarine makes the first attack of the war against a United States warship, the USS Greer.
  • 1944 – World War II: The British 11th Armoured Division liberates the Belgian city of Antwerp.
  • 1944 – World War II: Finland exits from the war with Soviet Union.
  • 1951 – The first live transcontinental television broadcast takes place in San Francisco, from the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference.
  • 1957 – American Civil Rights Movement: Little Rock Crisis: The governor of Arkansas calls out the National Guard to prevent African American students from enrolling in Little Rock Central High School, resulting in the lawsuit Cooper v. Aaron the following year.
  • 1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Swift begins when US Marines engage the North Vietnamese in battle in the Que Son Valley.
  • 1975 – The Sinai Interim Agreement relating to the Arab-Israeli conflict is signed.

People (Births)

  • 1755 – Axel von Fersen the Younger, Swedish general and politician (d. 1810).
  • 1850 – Luigi Cadorna, Italian field marshal (d. 1928).
  • 1926 – George William Gray, British chemist who developed liquid crystals that made displays possible (d. 2013).
  • 1929 – Robert V. Keeley, Lebanese-American soldier and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Greece (d. 2015).
  • 1930 – William Maxson, American general (d. 2013).
  • 1935 – Charles A. Hines, American general and academic (d. 2013).
  • 1937 – Dawn Fraser, Australian swimmer and politician.
  • 1937 – Virgil A. Richard, American general (d. 2013).
  • 1967 – Dezső Szabó, Hungarian decathlete.
  • 1978 – Frederik Veuchelen, Belgian cyclist.
  • 1982 – Mark Lewis-Francis, English sprinter.
  • 1992 – Kevin Lee, American mixed martial artist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1804 – Richard Somers, American lieutenant (b. 1778).
  • 1821 – José Miguel Carrera, Chilean general and politician (b. 1785).
  • 1864 – John Hunt Morgan, American general (b. 1825).
  • 1944 – Erich Fellgiebel, German general (b. 1886).
  • 1974 – Creighton Abrams, American general (b. 1914).
  • 1974 – Charles Arnison, English military pilot (b. 1893).
  • 2007 – John Scott, 9th Duke of Buccleuch, Scottish soldier and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Roxburghshire (b. 1923).
  • 2012 – Abraham Avigdorov, Israeli soldier (b. 1929).

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