- 29 BC – Octavian holds the second of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.
- 1040 – King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth.
- The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland.
- 1264 – After tricking the Venetian galley fleet into sailing east to the Levant, the Genoese capture an entire Venetian trade convoy at the Battle of Saseno.
- 1352 – War of the Breton Succession: Anglo-Bretons defeat the French in the Battle of Mauron.
- 1385 – Portuguese Crisis of 1383-1385: Battle of Aljubarrota: Portuguese forces commanded by John I of Portugal defeat the Castilian army of John I of Castile.
- 1592 – The first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis.
- 1598 – Nine Years’ War: Battle of the Yellow Ford: Irish forces under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeat an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.
- 1720 – The Spanish military Villasur expedition is defeated by Pawnee and Otoe warriors near present-day Columbus, Nebraska.
- 1790 – The Treaty of Wereloe ended the 1788–1790 Russo-Swedish War.
- 1791 – Slaves from plantations in Saint-Domingue hold a Vodou ceremony led by houngan Dutty Boukman at Bois Caïman, marking the start of the Haitian Revolution.
- 1816 – The United Kingdom formally annexes the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, administering the islands from the Cape Colony in South Africa.
- 1842 – American Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida.
- 1893 – France becomes the first country to introduce motor vehicle registration.
- 1900 – The Eight-Nation Alliance occupies Beijing, China, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.
- 1901 – The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.
- 1914 – World War I: Start of the Battle of Lorraine, an unsuccessful French offensive.
- 1921 – Tannu Uriankhai, later Tuvan People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country (which is supported by Soviet Russia).
- 1941 – World War II: Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating post-war aims.
- 1947 – Pakistan gains Independence from the British Empire.
- 1969 – The Troubles: British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland as political and sectarian violence breaks out, marking the start of the 37-year Operation Banner.
- 1971 – Bahrain declares independence from Britain.
- 2006 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sixty-one schoolgirls killed in Chencholai bombing by Sri Lankan Air Force air strike.
- 2013 – Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.
- 1653 – Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle, English colonel and politician, Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica (d. 1688).
- 1896 – Albert Ball, English fighter pilot (d. 1917).
- 1952 – Debbie Meyer, American swimmer.
- 1954 – Stanley A. McChrystal, American general.
- 1973 – Kieren Perkins, Australian swimmer.
- 1573 – Saitō Tatsuoki, Japanese daimyō (b. 1548).
- 1691 – Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, Irish soldier and politician (b. 1630).
- 1870 – David Farragut, American admiral (b. 1801).
- 1905 – Simeon Solomon, English soldier and painter (b. 1840).