On This Day … 12 August

Events

  • 1099 – First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade.
  • 1121 – Battle of Didgori: The Georgian army under King David IV wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi.
  • 1164 – Battle of Harim: Nur ad-Din Zangi defeats the Crusader armies of the County of Tripoli and the Principality of Antioch.
  • 1323 – The Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod Republic is signed, regulating the border between the two countries for the first time.
  • 1492 – Christopher Columbus arrives in the Canary Islands on his first voyage to the New World.
  • 1499 – First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets.
  • 1676 – Praying Indian John Alderman shoots and kills Metacomet, the Wampanoag war chief, ending King Philip’s War.
  • 1687 – Battle of Mohács: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1765 – Treaty of Allahabad is signed. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India.
  • 1806 – Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina after the first British invasion.
  • 1831 – French intervention forces William I of the Netherlands to abandon his attempt to suppress the Belgian Revolution.
  • 1851 – Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.
  • 1865 – Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs 1st antiseptic surgery.
  • 1898 – The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ʻIolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.
  • 1914 – World War I: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.
  • 1914 – World War I: The Battle of Halen a.k.a. Battle of the Silver Helmets a clash between large Belgian and German cavalry formations at Halen, Belgium.
  • 1944 – World War II: Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant’Anna di Stazzema.
  • 1944 – World War II: German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people are killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.
  • 1944 – World war II: Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.
  • 1950 – Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre: 75 American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.
  • 1953 – First thermonuclear bomb test: The Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of “RDS-6s” (Joe 4) using a “layered” scheme.
  • 1976 – Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War.
  • 1981 – The IBM Personal Computer is released.
  • 2000 – The Russian Navy submarine Kursk explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise, killing her entire 118-man crew.
  • 2016 – Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) capture the city of Manbij from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
  • 2018 – Thirty-nine civilians, including a dozen children, are killed in an explosion at a weapons depot in a rebel-held town in northwest Syria.
  • Russian Railway Troops Day (Russia).

People (Births)

  • 1604 – Tokugawa Iemitsu, Japanese shōgun (d. 1651).
  • 1877 – Albert Bartha, Hungarian general and politician, Hungarian Minister of Defence (d. 1960).
  • 1907 – Boy Charlton, Australian swimmer (d. 1975).
  • 1909 – Bruce Matthews, Canadian general and businessman (d. 1991).
  • 1916 – Ioan Dicezare, Romanian general and pilot (d. 2012).
  • 1918 – Guy Gibson, Anglo-Indian commander and pilot, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1944).
  • 1924 – Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistani general and politician, 6th President of Pakistan (d. 1988).
  • 1925 – Dale Bumpers, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 38th Governor of Arkansas (d. 2016).
  • 1925 – Norris McWhirter, Scottish publisher and activist co-founded the Guinness World Records (d. 2004).
  • 1925 – Ross McWhirter, Scottish publisher and activist, co-founded the Guinness World Records (d. 1975).
  • 1939 – Pam Kilborn, Australian track and field athlete.
  • 1940 – John Waller, English historical European martial arts (HEMA) revival pioneer and fight director (d. 2018).
  • 1949 – Panagiotis Chinofotis, Greek admiral and politician.
  • 1960 – Laurent Fignon, French cyclist and sportscaster (d. 2010).
  • 1970 – Anthony Swofford, American soldier and author.
  • 1979 – Austra Skujytė, Lithuanian pentathlete.

People (Deaths)

  • 1335 – Prince Moriyoshi, Japanese shōgun (b. 1308).
  • 1399 – Demetrius I Starshy, Prince of Trubczewsk (in battle) (b. 1327).
  • 1778 – Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire (b. 1714).
  • 1809 – Mikhail Kamensky, Russian field marshal (b. 1738).
  • 1829 – Charles Sapinaud de La Rairie, French general (b. 1760).
  • 1861 – Eliphalet Remington, American inventor and businessman, founded Remington Arms (b. 1793).
  • 1896 – Thomas Chamberlain, American colonel (b. 1841).
  • 1914 – John Philip Holland, Irish engineer, designed HMS Holland 1 (b. 1840).
  • 1941 – Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, English soldier and politician, 56th Governor General of Canada (b. 1866).
  • 1944 – Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., American lieutenant and pilot (b. 1915).
  • 1983 – Theodor Burchardi, German admiral (b. 1892).
  • 2000 – Gennady Lyachin, Russian captain. Commander of the Submarine Kursk (b. 1955).
  • 2013 – Hans-Ekkehard Bob, German soldier and pilot (b. 1917).
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