- 1099 – Some 15,000 starving Christian soldiers begin the siege of Jerusalem by marching in a religious procession around the city as its Muslim defenders watch.
- 1283 – Roger of Lauria, commanding the Aragonese fleet, defeats an Angevin fleet sent to put down a rebellion on Malta.
- 1497 – Vasco da Gama sets sail on the first direct European voyage to India.
- 1663 – Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal charter to Rhode Island.
- 1709 – Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava, thus effectively ending Sweden’s status as a major power in Europe.
- 1716 – The Battle of Dynekilen forces Sweden to abandon its invasion of Norway.
- 1758 – French forces hold Fort Carillon against the British at Ticonderoga, New York.
- 1760 – British forces defeat French forces in the last naval battle in New France.
- 1775 – The Olive Branch Petition is signed by the Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies of North America.
- 1776 – Church bells (possibly including the Liberty Bell) are rung after John Nixon delivers the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.
- 1808 – Joseph Bonaparte approves the Bayonne Statute, a royal charter intended as the basis for his rule as king of Spain.
- 1822 – Chippewas turn over a huge tract of land in Ontario to the United Kingdom.
- 1853 – The Perry Expedition arrives in Edo Bay with a treaty requesting trade.
- 1864 – Ikedaya Incident: The Choshu Han shishi’s planned Shinsengumi sabotage on Kyoto, Japan at Ikedaya.
- 1874 – The Mounties begin their March West.
- 1912 – Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro leads an unsuccessful royalist attack against the First Portuguese Republic in Chaves.
- 1947 – Reports are broadcast that a UFO crash-landed in Roswell, New Mexico in what became known as the Roswell UFO incident.
- 1948 – The United States Air Force accepts its first female recruits into a programme called Women in the Air Force (WAF).
- 1960 – Francis Gary Powers is charged with espionage resulting from his flight over the Soviet Union.
- 2014 – Israel launches an offensive on Gaza amid rising tensions following the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli teenagers.
- Air Force and Air Defense Forces Day (Ukraine).
- 1819 – Francis Leopold McClintock, Irish admiral and explorer (d. 1907).
- 1838 – Ferdinand von Zeppelin, German general and businessman, founded the Zeppelin Airship Company (d. 1917).
- 1909 – Alan Brown, English soldier (d. 1971).
- 1910 – Carlos Betances Ramírez, Puerto Rican general (d. 2001).
- 1915 – Neil D. Van Sickle, American Air Force major general (d. 2019).
- 1915 – Lowell English, United States Marine Corps general (d. 2005).
- 1918 – Paul B. Fay, American businessman, soldier, and diplomat, 12th United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 2009).
- 1918 – Oluf Reed-Olsen, Norwegian resistance member and pilot (d. 2002).
- 1918 – Edward B. Giller, U.S Major General (d. 2017).
- 1919 – Walter Scheel, German soldier and politician, 4th President of West Germany (d. 2016).
- 1977 – Paolo Tiralongo, Italian cyclist.
- 1981 – Wolfram Müller, German runner.
- 1988 – Jesse Sergent, New Zealand cyclist.
- 1538 – Diego de Almagro, Spanish general and explorer (b. 1475).
- 1942 – Louis Franchet d’Espèrey, Algerian-French general (b. 1856).
- 1943 – Jean Moulin, French soldier (b. 1899).
- 1968 – Désiré Mérchez, French swimmer and water polo player (b. 1882).
- 1981 – Joe McDonnell (hunger striker), Irish Republican Army member (b. 1951).
- 1999 – Pete Conrad, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1930).
- 2014 – John V. Evans, American soldier and politician, 27th Governor of Idaho (b. 1925).
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