On This Day … 05 July

Events

  • 1316 – The Burgundian and Majorcan claimants of the Principality of Achaea meet in the Battle of Manolada.
  • 1594 – Portuguese forces under the command of Pedro Lopes de Sousa begin an unsuccessful invasion of the Kingdom of Kandy during the Campaign of Danture in Sri Lanka.
  • 1610 – John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
  • 1687 – Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
  • 1770 – The Battle of Chesma between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire begins.
  • 1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.
  • 1803 – The Convention of Artlenburg is signed, leading to the French occupation of the Electorate of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).
  • 1807 – In Buenos Aires the local militias repel the British soldiers within the Second English Invasion.
  • 1809 – The largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars, the Battle of Wagram is fought between the French and Austrian Empires.
  • 1811 – The Venezuelan Declaration of Independence is adopted by a congress of the provinces.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.
  • 1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.
  • 1833 – Lê Văn Khôi along with 27 soldiers stage a mutiny taking over the Phiên An citadel, developing into the Lê Văn Khôi revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng.
  • 1833 – Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
  • 1841 – Thomas Cook organises the first package excursion, from Leicester to Loughborough.
  • 1884 – Germany takes possession of Cameroon.
  • 1915 – The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia by special train on its way to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition.
    • This is the last trip outside Philadelphia that the custodians of the bell intend to permit.
  • 1937 – Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
  • 1940 – World War II: Foreign relations of Vichy France are severed with the United Kingdom.
  • 1941 – World War II: Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper river.
  • 1943 – World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, 10 July 1943).
  • 1943 – World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel.
  • 1948 – National Health Service Acts create the national public health system in the United Kingdom.
  • 1950 – Korean War: Task Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan.
  • 1954 – The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
  • 1962 – The official independence of Algeria is proclaimed after an eight-year-long war with France.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1975 – Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1977 – Military coup in Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown.
  • 1987 – Sri Lankan Civil War: The LTTE uses suicide attacks on the Sri Lankan Army for the first time.
    • The Black Tigers are born and, in the following years, will continue to kill with the tactic.
  • 1989 – Iran–Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by US District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service.
    • His convictions are later overturned.
  • 1996 – Dolly the sheep becomes the first mammal cloned from an adult cell.
  • 1997 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Tamil MP A. Thangathurai is shot dead at Sri Shanmuga Hindu Ladies College in Trincomalee.
  • 1999 – US President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
  • 2006 – North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2.
    • The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly fails in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

People (Births)

  • 1593 – Achille d’Étampes de Valençay, French military leader (d. 1646).
  • 1793 – Pavel Pestel, Russian officer (d. 1826).
  • 1801 – David Farragut, American admiral (d. 1870).
  • 1802 – Pavel Nakhimov, Russian admiral (d. 1855).
  • 1805 – Robert FitzRoy, English captain, meteorologist, and politician, 2nd Governor of New Zealand (d. 1865).
  • 1841 – William Collins Whitney, American financier and politician, 31st United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 1904).
  • 1860 – Robert Bacon, American colonel and politician, 39th United States Secretary of State (d. 1919).
  • 1879 – Dwight F. Davis, American tennis player and politician, 49th United States Secretary of War (d. 1945).
  • 1898 – Georgios Grivas, Greek general (d. 1974).
  • 1902 – Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., American colonel and politician, 3rd United States Ambassador to the United Nations (d. 1985).
  • 1915 – John Woodruff, American runner and commander (d. 2007).
  • 1918 – Zakaria Mohieddin, Egyptian general and politician, 33rd Prime Minister of Egypt (d. 2012).
  • 1944 – Leni Björklund, Swedish politician, 28th Swedish Minister of Defence for Sweden.
  • 1951 – Roger Wicker, American colonel, lawyer, and politician.
  • 1962 – Sarina Hülsenbeck, German swimmer.
  • 1970 – Valentí Massana, Spanish race walker.
  • 1972 – Matthew Birir, Kenyan runner.
  • 1972 – Robert Esmie, Canadian sprinter.
  • 1978 – Britta Oppelt, German rower.
  • 1982 – Philippe Gilbert, Belgian cyclist.
  • 1987 – Alexander Kristoff, Norwegian cyclist.
  • 1988 – Martin Liivamägi, Estonian swimmer.
  • 1990 – Abeba Aregawi, Ethiopian-Swedish runner.

People (Deaths)

  • 1676 – Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Swedish field marshal and politician (b. 1613).
  • 1719 – Meinhardt Schomberg, 3rd Duke of Schomberg, German-English general (b. 1641).
  • 1819 – William Cornwallis, English admiral and politician (b.1744).
  • 1826 – Stamford Raffles, English politician, founded Singapore (b. 1782).
  • 1833 – Nicéphore Niépce, French inventor, created the first known photograph (b. 1765).
  • 1863 – Lewis Armistead, American general (b. 1817).
  • 1929 – Henry Johnson, American sergeant (b. 1897).
  • 1935 – Bernard de Pourtalès, Swiss captain and sailor (b. 1870).
  • 1948 – Georges Bernanos, French soldier and author (b. 1888).
  • 2005 – James Stockdale, American admiral (b. 1923).
  • 2012 – Rob Goris, Belgian cyclist (b. 1982).
  • 2013 – Lambert Jackson Woodburne, South African admiral (b. 1939).
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