On This Day … 01 June

Events

  • 1215 – Zhongdu (now Beijing), then under the control of the Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Zhongdu.
  • 1252 – Alfonso X is proclaimed king of Castile and León.
  • 1298 – Residents of Riga and Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Turaida.
  • 1495 – A monk, John Cor, records the first known batch of Scotch whisky.
  • 1533 – Anne Boleyn is crowned Queen of England.
  • 1535 – Combined forces loyal to Charles V attack and expel the Ottomans from Tunis during the Conquest of Tunis.
  • 1648 – The Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers at the Battle of Maidstone in the Second English Civil War.
  • 1649 – Start of the Sumuroy Revolt: Filipinos in Northern Samar led by Agustin Sumuroy revolt against Spanish colonial authorities.
  • 1670 – In Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
  • 1676 – Battle of Öland: allied Danish-Dutch forces defeat the Swedish navy in the Baltic Sea, during the Scanian War (1675–79).
  • 1679 – The Scottish Covenanters defeat John Graham of Claverhouse at the Battle of Drumclog.
  • 1773 – Wolraad Woltemade rescues 14 sailors at the Cape of Good Hope from the sinking ship De Jonge Thomas by riding his horse into the sea seven times. He drowned on his eighth attempt.
  • 1779 – The court-martial for malfeasance of Benedict Arnold, a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, begins.
  • 1794 – The battle of the Glorious First of June is fought, the first naval engagement between Britain and France during the French Revolutionary Wars.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: US President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.
  • 1813 – Capture of USS Chesapeake.
  • 1831 – James Clark Ross becomes the first European at the North Magnetic Pole.
  • 1855 – The American adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: The Battle of Fairfax Court House is fought.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign: The Battle of Seven Pines (or the Battle of Fair Oaks) ends inconclusively, with both sides claiming victory.
  • 1868 – The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed, allowing the Navajo to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.
  • 1879 – Napoléon Eugène, the last dynastic Bonaparte, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War.
  • 1913 – The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.
  • 1918 – World War I: Western Front: Battle of Belleau Wood: Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord engage Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.
  • 1939 – First flight of the German Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter aircraft.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Battle of Crete ends as Crete capitulates to Germany.
  • 1943 – BOAC Flight 777 is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by German Junkers Ju 88s, killing British actor Leslie Howard and leading to speculation that it was actually an attempt to kill British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
  • 1946 – Ion Antonescu, “Conducator” (“Leader”) of Romania during World War II, is executed.
  • 1962 – Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.
  • 1964 – Kenya becomes a republic with Jomo Kenyatta (1897 to 22 August 1978) as its first President (1964 to 1978).
  • 1974 – The Heimlich manoeuvre for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine.
  • 1988 – The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty comes into effect.
  • 1990 – Cold War: George H.W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Samoa from New Zealand in 1962.

People (Births)

  • 1825 – John Hunt Morgan, American general (d. 1864).
  • 1831 – John Bell Hood, American general (d. 1879).
  • 1843 – Henry Faulds, Scottish physician and missionary, developed fingerprinting (d. 1930).
  • 1844 – John J. Toffey, American lieutenant, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1911).
  • 1879 – Max Emmerich, American triathlete and gymnast (d. 1956).
  • 1907 – Frank Whittle, English airman and engineer, developed the jet engine (d. 1996).
  • 1926 – Richard Schweiker, American soldier and politician, 14th United States Secretary of Health and Human Services (d. 2015).
  • 1933 – Charles Wilson, American lieutenant and politician (d. 2010).
  • 1955 – Lorraine Moller, New Zealand runner.
  • 1965 – Olga Nazarova, Russian sprinter.
  • 1973 – Frédérik Deburghgraeve, Belgian swimmer.
  • 1974 – Michael Rasmussen, Danish cyclist.
  • 1976 – Marlon Devonish, English sprinter and coach.
  • 1985 – Tirunesh Dibaba, Ethiopian runner.
  • 1986 – Moses Ndiema Masai, Kenyan runner.
  • 1989 – Sammy Alex Mutahi, Kenyan runner.

People (Deaths)

  • 829 – Li Tongjie, general of the Tang Dynasty.
  • 1186 – Minamoto no Yukiie, Japanese warlord.
  • 1616 – Tokugawa Ieyasu, Japanese shogun (b. 1543).
  • 1710 – David Mitchell, Scottish admiral and politician (b. 1642).
  • 1815 – Louis-Alexandre Berthier, French general and politician, French Minister of War (b. 1753).
  • 1823 – Louis-Nicolas Davout, French general and politician, French Minister of War (b. 1770).
  • 1861 – John Quincy Marr, American captain (b. 1825).
  • 1864 – Hong Xiuquan, Chinese rebel, led the Taiping Rebellion (b. 1812).
  • 1934 – Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet, English colonel and polo player (b. 1867).
  • 1935 – Arthur Arz von Straußenburg, Romanian-Hungarian general (d. 1857).
  • 1946 – Ion Antonescu, Romanian marshal and politician, 43rd Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1882).
  • 1962 – Adolf Eichmann, a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (b. 1906).
  • 1985 – Richard Greene, English actor and soldier (b. 1918).
  • 1999 – Christopher Cockerell, English engineer, invented the hovercraft (b. 1910).
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