- 868 – A copy of the Diamond Sutra is printed in China, making it the oldest known dated printed book.
- 1745 – War of the Austrian Succession: French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army.
- 1792 – Robert Gray commands the first expedition to sail into the Columbia River.
- 1813 – William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth discover a route across the Blue Mountains, opening up inland Australia to settlement.
- 1846 – President James K. Polk asked for a Declaration of War against Mexico, starting the Mexican-American War.
- 1857 – Indian Rebellion of 1857: Indian rebels seize Delhi from the British.
- 1889 – An attack upon a US Army paymaster and escort results in the theft of over $28,000 and the award of two Medals of Honour.
- 1943 – World War II: American troops invade Attu Island in the Aleutian Islands in an attempt to expel occupying Japanese forces.
- 1945 – World War II: Off the coast of Okinawa, the aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill is hit by two kamikazes.
- 1960 – Adolf Eichmann is captured by the Mossad in Argentina.
- 1973 – Citing government misconduct, Daniel Ellsberg’s charges for his involvement in releasing the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times are dismissed.
- 1987 – Klaus Barbie goes on trial in Lyon for war crimes committed during World War II.
- 1998 – India conducts three underground atomic tests in Pokhran.
- 2000 – Second Chechen War: Chechen separatists ambush Russian paramilitary forces in the Republic of Ingushetia.
- 2010 – David Cameron takes office as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom as the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats form the country’s first coalition government since the Second World War.
- 1571 – Niwa Nagashige, Japanese daimyō (d. 1637).
- 1797 – José Mariano Salas, Mexican general and politician (d. 1867).
- 1888 – Willis Augustus Lee, American admiral (d. 1945).
- 1890 – Willie Applegarth, English-American sprinter (d. 1958).
- 1890 – Helge Løvland, Norwegian decathlete (d. 1984).
- 1905 – Lise de Baissac, Mauritian-born SOE agent, war hero (d. 2004).
- 1969 – Simon Vroemen, Dutch runner.
- 1970 – Jason Queally, English cyclist.
- 1972 – Tomáš Dvořák, Czech decathlete and coach.
- 1973 – Tsuyoshi Ogata, Japanese runner.
- 1994 – Hagos Gebrhiwet, Ethiopian runner.
- 1778 – William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, English soldier and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1708).
- 1988 – Kim Philby, British-Soviet double agent (b. 1912).
- 2005 – Léo Cadieux, Canadian politician, 17th Canadian Minister of National Defence (b. 1908).
- 2009 – Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda, Indian admiral (b. 1915).