On This Day … 01 May

Events

  • 305 – Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman emperor.
  • 1169 – Norman mercenaries land at Bannow Bay in Leinster, marking the beginning of the Norman invasion of Ireland.
  • 1328 – Wars of Scottish Independence end: By the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, England recognises Scotland as an independent state.
  • 1707 – The Act of Union joining England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain takes effect.
  • 1807 – The Slave Trade Act 1807 takes effect, abolishing the slave trade within the British Empire.
  • 1820 – Execution of the Cato Street Conspirators, who plotted to kill the British Cabinet and Prime Minister Lord Liverpool.
  • 1840 – The Penny Black, the first official adhesive postage stamp, is issued in the United Kingdom.
  • 1844 – Hong Kong Police Force, the world’s second modern police force and Asia’s first, is established.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville begins.
  • 1865 – The Empire of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay sign the Treaty of the Triple Alliance.
  • 1898 – Spanish-American War: Battle of Manila Bay: The Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy destroys the Pacific Squadron of the Spanish Navy after a seven-hour battle.
    • Spain loses all seven of its ships, and 381 Spanish sailors die. There are no American vessel losses or combat deaths.
  • 1915 – World War I: The RMS Lusitania departs from New York City on her 202nd, and final, crossing of the North Atlantic.
    • Six days later, the ship is torpedoed off the coast of Ireland with the loss of 1,198 lives.
  • 1919 – German troops enter Munich to suppress the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
  • 1945 – World War II: A German newsreader officially announces that Adolf Hitler has “fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancellery fighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany”.
    • The Soviet flag is raised over the Reich Chancellery, by order of Stalin.
  • 1945 – World War II: Up to 2,500 people die in a mass suicide in Demmin following the advance of the Red Army.
  • 1947 – Portella della Ginestra massacre against May Day celebrations in Sicily by the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano where 11 persons are killed and 33 wounded.
  • 1956 – The polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk is made available to the public.
  • 1960 – Cold War: U-2 incident: Francis Gary Powers, in a Lockheed U-2 spyplane, is shot down over the Sverdlovsk Oblast, Soviet Union, sparking a diplomatic crisis.
  • 1961 – The Prime Minister of Cuba, Fidel Castro, proclaims Cuba a socialist nation and abolishes elections.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: Protests erupt following the announcement by Richard Nixon that the US and South Vietnamese forces would attack Vietnamese communists in a Cambodian Campaign.
  • 1982 – Operation Black Buck: The Royal Air Force attacks the Argentine Air Force during Falklands War.
  • 2003 – Invasion of Iraq: In what becomes known as the “Mission Accomplished” speech, on board the USS Abraham Lincoln (off the coast of California), US President George W. Bush declares that “major combat operations in Iraq have ended”.
  • 2019 – Naxalite attack in Gadchiroli district of India: Sixteen army soldiers, including a driver, killed in an IED blast. Naxals targeted an anti-Naxal operations team.
  • Armed Forces Day (Mauritania).

People (Births)

  • 1579 – Wolphert Gerretse, Dutch-American farmer, co-founded New Netherland (d. 1662).
  • 1730 – Joshua Rowley, English admiral (d. 1790).
  • 1735 – Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen, Dutch admiral and philanthropist (d. 1819).
  • 1769 – Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Irish-English field marshal and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1852).
  • 1864 – Anna Jarvis, American founder of Mother’s Day (d. 1948).
  • 1872 – Sidónio Pais, Portuguese soldier and politician, 4th President of Portugal (d. 1918).
  • 1875 – Dave Hall, American runner (d. 1972).
  • 1887 – Alan Cunningham, Anglo-Irish general and diplomat, High Commissioner for Palestine and Transjordan (d. 1983).
  • 1895 – Nikolai Yezhov, Soviet secret police official, head of the NKVD (d. 1940).
  • 1896 – Mark W. Clark, American general (d. 1984).
  • 1896 – J. Lawton Collins, American general (d. 1987).
  • 1906 – Horst Schumann, German SS officer and physician (d. 1983).
  • 1909 – Endel Puusepp, Estonian-Soviet military pilot and politician (d. 1996).
  • 1912 – Otto Kretschmer, German admiral (d. 1998).
  • 1916 – Antoni Bazaniak, Polish sprint canoeist (d. 1979).
  • 1923 – Marcel Rayman, Polish soldier (d. 1944).
  • 1925 – Chuck Bednarik, American lieutenant and football player (d. 2015).
  • 1925 – Scott Carpenter, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2013).
  • 1930 – Ollie Matson, American sprinter and football player (d. 2011).
  • 1930 – Richard Riordan, American lieutenant and politician, 39th Mayor of Los Angeles and publisher.
  • 1932 – Sandy Woodward, English admiral (d. 2013).
  • 1948 – Györgyi Balogh, Hungarian sprinter.
  • 1971 – Artur Kohutek, Polish hurdler and soldier.
  • 1976 – Patricia Stokkers, Dutch swimmer.
  • 1977 – Vera Lischka, Austrian swimmer and politician.
  • 1980 – Yuliya Tabakova, Russian athlete.
  • 1983 – Alain Bernard, French swimmer.
  • 1989 – Poļina Jeļizarova, Latvian runner.
  • 1991 – Daniel Talbot, British sprinter.
  • 1996 – Christopher J. Alexis Jr., Grenadian road cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1187 – Roger de Moulins, Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller.
  • 1813 – Jean-Baptiste Bessières, French general (b. 1768).
  • 1935 – Henri Pélissier, French cyclist (b. 1889).
  • 1984 – Jüri Lossmann, Estonian-Swedish runner (b. 1891).
  • 2008 – Philipp von Boeselager, German soldier and economist (b. 1917).
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