On This Day … 03 April

Events

  • 801 – King Louis the Pious captures Barcelona from the Moors after a siege of several months.
  • 1043 – Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.
  • 1559 – The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty is signed, ending the Italian Wars.
  • 1865 – American Civil War: Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States of America.
  • 1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.
  • 1922 – Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces begin an assault on the United States and Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula.
  • 1946 – Japanese Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for leading the Bataan Death March.
  • 1948 – Cold War: US President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan, authorizing $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
  • 1948 – In Jeju Province, South Korea, a civil-war-like period of violence and human rights abuses begins, known as the Jeju uprising.
  • 1969 – Vietnam War: US Secretary of Defence Melvin Laird announces that the US will start to “Vietnamise” the war effort.
  • 1973 – Martin Cooper of Motorola makes the first handheld mobile phone call to Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.
  • 1981 – The Osborne 1, the first successful portable computer, is unveiled at the West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco.
  • 1997 – The Thalit massacre begins in Algeria; all but one of the 53 inhabitants of Thalit are killed by guerrillas.

People (Births)

  • 1770 – Theodoros Kolokotronis, Greek general (d. 1843).
  • 1778 – Pierre Bretonneau, French doctor who performed the first successful tracheotomy (d. 1862).
  • 1782 – Alexander Macomb, American general (d. 1841).
  • 1798 – Charles Wilkes, American admiral, geographer, and explorer (d.1877).
  • 1823 – George Derby, American lieutenant and journalist (d. 1861).
  • 1842 – Ulric Dahlgren, American colonel (d. 1864).
  • 1848 – Arturo Prat, Chilean lawyer and captain (d. 1879).
  • 1858 – Jacob Gaudaur, Canadian rower (d. 1937).
  • 1887 – Nishizō Tsukahara, Japanese admiral (d. 1966).
  • 1888 – Thomas C. Kinkaid, American admiral (d. 1972).
  • 1897 – Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, Greek general (d. 1989).
  • 1903 – Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, Indian social reformer and freedom fighter (d. 1988).
  • 1905 – Robert Sink, American general (d. 1965).
  • 1911 – Stanisława Walasiewicz, Polish-American runner (d. 1980).
  • 1914 – Sam Manekshaw, Indian field marshal (d. 2008).
  • 1915 – Piet de Jong, Dutch politician and naval officer, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (d. 2016).
  • 1922 – Yevhen Bulanchyk, Ukrainian hurdler (d. 1996).
  • 1924 – Roza Shanina, Russian sergeant and sniper (d. 1945).
  • 1926 – Gus Grissom, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1967).
  • 1927 – Wesley A. Brown, American general and engineer (d. 2012).
  • 1930 – Lawton Chiles, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 41st Governor of Florida (d. 1998).
  • 1930 – Mario Benjamín Menéndez, Argentinian general and politician (d. 2015).
  • 1943 – Hikaru Saeki, Japanese admiral, the first female star officer of the Japan Self-Defence Forces.
  • 1948 – Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Dutch academic, politician, and diplomat, 11th Secretary General of NATO.
  • 1964 – Bjarne Riis, Danish cyclist and manager.
  • 1986 – Annalisa Cucinotta, Italian cyclist.
  • 1987 – Martyn Rooney, English sprinter.
  • 1992 – Yuliya Yefimova, Russian swimmer.

People (Deaths)

  • 1171 – Philip of Milly, seventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar (b. c. 1120).
  • 1606 – Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1563).
  • 1792 – George Pocock, English admiral (b. 1706).
  • 1846 – William Braine, English soldier and explorer (b. 1814).
  • 1946 – Masaharu Homma, Japanese general (b. 1887).
  • 1996 – Ron Brown, American captain and politician, 30th United States Secretary of Commerce (b. 1941).
  • 1999 – Geoffrey Walsh, Canadian general (b. 1909).
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