- 1590 – Battle of Ivry: Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots defeat the forces of the Catholic League under Charles, Duke of Mayenne, during the French Wars of Religion.
- 1647 – Thirty Years’ War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.
- 1674 – The Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Battle of Ronas Voe results in the Dutch East India Company ship Wapen van Rotterdam being captured with a death toll of up to 300 Dutch crew and soldiers.
- 1757 – Admiral Sir John Byng is executed by firing squad aboard HMS Monarch for breach of the Articles of War.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Spanish forces capture Fort Charlotte in Mobile, Alabama, the last British frontier post capable of threatening New Orleans.
- 1794 – Eli Whitney is granted a patent for the cotton gin.
- 1920 – In the second of the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites, about 80% of the population in Zone II votes to remain part of Weimar Germany.
- 1939 – Slovakia declares independence under German pressure.
- 1942 – Anne Miller becomes the first American patient to be treated with penicillin, under the care of Orvan Hess and John Bumstead.
- 1943 – The liquidation of the Kraków Ghetto is completed.
- 1945 – The RAF drop the Grand Slam bomb in action for the first time, on a railway viaduct near Bielefeld, Germany.
- 1951 – Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul for the second time.
- 1961 – A USAF B-52 bomber crashes near near Yuba City, California whilst carrying nuclear weapons.
- 1964 – Jack Ruby is convicted of killing Lee Harvey Oswald, a former US Marine and the assumed assassin of John F. Kennedy.
- 1967 – The body of US President John F. Kennedy is moved to a permanent burial place at Arlington National Cemetery.
- 1978 – The Israel Defence Forces launch Operation Litani, a seven-day campaign to invade and occupy southern Lebanon.
- 1988 – In the Johnson South Reef Skirmish Chinese forces defeat Vietnamese forces in an altercation over control of one of the Spratly Islands.
- 2006 – The 2006 Chadian coup d’état attempt ends in failure.
- 1885 – Raoul Lufbery, French-American soldier and pilot (d. 1918).
- 1886 – Firmin Lambot, Belgian cyclist (d. 1964).
- 1908 – Ed Heinemann, American designer of military aircraft (d. 1991).
- 1912 – W. Graham Claytor, Jr. American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 15th United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 1994).
- 1917 – Alan Smith, English lieutenant and pilot (d. 2013).
- 1925 – Joseph A. Unanue, American sergeant and businessman (d. 2013).
- 1928 – Frank Borman, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
- 1934 – Eugene Cernan, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2017).
- 1978 – Pieter van den Hoogenband, Dutch swimmer.
- 1986 – Jessica Gallagher, Australian skier and cyclist.
- 1988 – Rico Freimuth, German decathlete.
- 1648 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English general and politician (b. 1584).
- 1748 – George Wade, Irish field marshal and politician (b. 1673).
- 1757 – John Byng, British admiral and politician, 11th Commodore Governor of Newfoundland (b. 1704).
- 1823 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general and politician, French Minister of War (b. 1739).
- 1877 – Juan Manuel de Rosas, Argentinian general and politician, 17th Governor of Buenos Aires Province (b. 1793).