On This Day … 04 March

Events

  • 1238 – The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Rus’.
  • 1461 – Wars of the Roses in England: Lancastrian King Henry VI is deposed by his House of York cousin, who then becomes King Edward IV.
  • 1493 – Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what are now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.
  • 1519 – Hernán Cortés arrives in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilisation and its wealth.
  • 1628 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter.
  • 1665 – English King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands marking the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.
  • 1681 – Charles II grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania.
  • 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army fortifies Dorchester Heights with cannon, leading the British troops to abandon the Siege of Boston.
  • 1790 – France is divided into 83 départements, cutting across the former provinces in an attempt to dislodge regional loyalties based on ownership of land by the nobility.
  • 1791 – The Constitutional Act of 1791 is introduced by the British House of Commons in London which envisages the separation of Canada into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).
  • 1804 – Castle Hill Rebellion: Irish convicts rebel against British colonial authority in the Colony of New South Wales.
  • 1814 – Americans defeat British forces at the Battle of Longwoods between London, Ontario and Thamesville, near present-day Wardsville, Ontario.
  • 1837 – The city of Chicago is incorporated.
  • 1861 – The first national flag of the Confederate States of America (the “Stars and Bars”) is adopted.
  • 1865 – The third and final national flag of the Confederate States of America is adopted by the Confederate Congress.
  • 1882 – Britain’s first electric trams run in east London.
  • 1913 – First Balkan War: The Greek army engages the Turks at Bizani, resulting in victory two days later.
  • 1941 – World War II: The United Kingdom launches Operation Claymore on the Lofoten Islands; the first large scale British Commando raid.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the south-west Pacific comes to an end.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Battle of Fardykambos, one of the first major battles between the Greek Resistance and the occupying Royal Italian Army, begins. It ends on 06 March with the surrender of an entire Italian battalion and the liberation of the town of Grevena.
  • 1944 – World War II: After the success of Big Week, the US Army Air Force begins a daylight bombing campaign of Berlin.
  • 1970 – French submarine Eurydice explodes underwater, resulting in the loss of the entire 57-man crew.
  • 1976 – The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention is formally dissolved in Northern Ireland resulting in direct rule of Northern Ireland from London by the British parliament.
  • 2001 – BBC bombing: A massive car bomb explodes in front of the BBC Television Centre in London, seriously injuring one person; the attack was attributed to the Real IRA.
  • 2002 – Afghanistan: Seven American Special Operations Forces soldiers and 200 Al-Qaeda Fighters are killed as American forces attempt to infiltrate the Shah-i-Kot Valley on a low-flying helicopter reconnaissance mission.
  • 2009 – The International Criminal Court (ICC) issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
    • Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.
  • 2012 – A series of explosions is reported at a munitions dump in Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo, killing at least 250 people.

People (Births)

  • 895 – Liu Zhiyuan, founder of the Later Han Dynasty (d. 948).
  • 1665 – Philip Christoph von Königsmarck, Swedish soldier (d. 1694).
  • 1745 – Casimir Pulaski, Polish-American general (d. 1779).
  • 1769 – Muhammad Ali, Ottoman military leader and pasha (d. 1849).
  • 1778 – Robert Emmet, Irish commander (d. 1803).
  • 1814 – Napoleon Collins, Rear Admiral of the United States Navy during the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War (d. 1875)
  • 1820 – Francesco Bentivegna, Italian rebel leader (d. 1856).
  • 1867 – Charles Pelot Summerall, senior United States Army officer (d. 1955).
  • 1873 – John H. Trumbull, American colonel and politician, 70th Governor of Connecticut (d. 1961).
  • 1889 – Oren E. Long, American soldier and politician, 10th Territorial Governor of Hawaii (d. 1965).
  • 1890 – Norman Bethune, Canadian soldier and physician (d. 1939).
  • 1898 – Hans Krebs, German general (d. 1945).
  • 1901 – Wilbur R. Franks, Canadian scientist, invented the g-suit (d. 1986).
  • 1902 – Russell Reeder, American soldier and author (d. 1998).
  • 1904 – Luis Carrero Blanco, Spanish admiral and politician, 69th President of the Government of Spain (d. 1973).
  • 1906 – Meindert DeJong, Dutch-American soldier and author (d. 1991).
  • 1906 – Georges Ronsse, Belgian cyclist and manager (d. 1969).
  • 1915 – Frank Sleeman, Australian lieutenant and politician, Lord Mayor of Brisbane (d. 2000).
  • 1924 – Kenneth O’Donnell, American soldier and politician (d. 1977).
  • 1926 – Prince Michel of Bourbon-Parma, French businessman, soldier and race car driver (d. 2018).
  • 1927 – Phil Batt, American soldier and politician, 29th Governor of Idaho.
  • 1943 – Aldo Rico, Argentinian commander and politician.
  • 1954 – Timur Apakidze, Russian general and pilot (d. 2001).
  • 1965 – Yury Lonchakov, Russian colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1967 – Dave Rayner, English cyclist (d. 1994).
  • 1973 – Penny Mordaunt, English lieutenant and politician, Minister of State for the Armed Forces.
  • 1981 – Helen Wyman, English cyclist.
  • 1986 – Steven Burke, English road and track cyclist.

People (Deaths)

  • 1733 – Claude de Forbin, French admiral and politician (b. 1656).
  • 1853 – Thomas Bladen Capel, English admiral (b. 1776).
  • 1858 – Matthew C. Perry, American naval commander (b. 1794).
  • 1906 – John Schofield, American general and politician, 28th United States Secretary of War (b. 1831).
  • 1915 – William Willett, English inventor, founded British Summer Time (b. 1856).
  • 1960 – Herbert O’Conor, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 51st Governor of Maryland (b. 1896).
  • 1972 – Harold Barrowclough, New Zealand general, lawyer, and politician, 8th Chief Justice of New Zealand (b. 1894).
  • 1980 – Alan Hardaker, English lieutenant and businessman (b. 1912).
  • 1981 – Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer, German admiral (b. 1900).
  • 1993 – Nicholas Ridley, Baron Ridley of Liddesdale, English lieutenant and politician, Secretary of State for the Environment (b. 1929).
  • 1995 – Matt Urban, American colonel, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1919).
  • 1997 – Joe Baker-Cresswell, English captain (b. 1901).
  • 1998 – Ivan Dougherty, Australian general (b. 1907).
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