On This Day … 09 November

Events

  • 1277 – The Treaty of Aberconwy, a humiliating settlement forced on Llywelyn ap Gruffudd by King Edward I of England, brings a temporary end to the Welsh Wars.
  • 1313 – Louis the Bavarian defeats his cousin Frederick I of Austria at the Battle of Gammelsdorf.
  • 1330 – At the Battle of Posada, Basarab I of Wallachia defeats the Hungarian army of Charles I Robert.
  • 1520 – More than 50 people are sentenced and executed in the Stockholm Bloodbath.
  • 1620 – Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sight land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
  • 1688 – Glorious Revolution: William of Orange captures Exeter.
  • 1729 – Spain, France and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Seville.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: In the Battle of Fishdam Ford a force of British and Loyalist troops fail in a surprise attack against the South Carolina Patriot militia under Brigadier General Thomas Sumter.
  • 1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming First Consul of the successor Consulate Government.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan is removed.
  • 1867 – Tokugawa shogunate hands power back to the Emperor of Japan, starting the Meiji Restoration.
  • 1881 – Mapuche rebels attack the fortified Chilean settlement of Temuco.
  • 1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbour, Hawaii.
  • 1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country.
    • He did so to inspect progress on the Panama Canal.
  • 1914 – SMS Emden is sunk by HMAS Sydney in the Battle of Cocos.
  • 1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.
  • 1923 – In Munich, police and government troops crush the Nazi Beer Hall Putsch.
  • 1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Army withdraws from the Battle of Shanghai.
  • 1938 – The Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath dies from gunshot wounds by Herschel Grynszpan, an act which the Nazis used as an excuse to instigate the 1938 national pogrom, also known as Kristallnacht.
  • 1940 – Warsaw is awarded the Virtuti Militari.
  • 1953 – Cambodia gains independence from France.
    • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Cambodia from France in 1953.
  • 1965 – A Catholic Worker Movement member, Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6–3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.
  • 1979 – Cold War: Nuclear false alarm: The NORAD computers and the Alternate National Military Command Centre in Fort Ritchie, Maryland detected purported massive Soviet nuclear strike.
    • After reviewing the raw data from satellites and checking the early-warning radars, the alert is cancelled.
  • 1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall: East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall, allowing its citizens to travel to West Berlin.
  • 1993 – Stari Most, the “old bridge” in the Bosnian city of Mostar, built in 1566, collapses after several days of bombing by Croat forces during the Croat–Bosniak War.
  • 1994 – The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.
  • 2007 – The German Bundestag passes the controversial data retention bill mandating storage of citizens’ telecommunications traffic data for six months without probable cause.

People (Births)

  • 1801 – Gail Borden, American surveyor and publisher, invented condensed milk (d. 1874).
  • 1810 – Bernhard von Langenbeck, German general, surgeon, and academic (d. 1887).
  • 1825 – A. P. Hill, American general (d. 1865).
  • 1829 – Peter Lumsden, English general (d. 1918).
  • 1880 – Giles Gilbert Scott, English architect, designed the red telephone box (d. 1960).
  • 1894 – Dietrich von Choltitz, General of the German Army during World War II (d. 1966).
  • 1904 – Viktor Brack, German SS officer (d. 1948).
  • 1915 – Sargent Shriver, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 21st United States Ambassador to France (d. 2011).
  • 1916 – Martha Settle Putney, American lieutenant, historian, and educator (d. 2008).
  • 1918 – Spiro Agnew, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996).
  • 1918 – Thomas Ferebee, American colonel (d. 2000).
  • 1918 – Choi Hong Hi, South Korean general and martial artist, co-founded taekwondo (d. 2002).
  • 1920 – Byron De La Beckwith, American assassin of Medgar Evers, civil rights activists and WWII veteran (d. 2001).
  • 1921 – Viktor Chukarin, Ukrainian gymnast and coach (d. 1984).
  • 1923 – Alice Coachman, American high jumper (d. 2014).
  • 1933 – Ed Corney, American professional bodybuilder (d. 2019).
  • 1951 – Lou Ferrigno, American bodybuilder and actor.
  • 1970 – Nelson Diebel, American swimmer and coach.

People (Deaths)

  • 1770 – John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll, Scottish general and politician (b. 1693).
  • 1918 – Peter Lumsden, English general (b. 1829).
  • 1938 – Vasily Blyukher, Russian marshal (b. 1889).
  • 1957 – Peter O’Connor, Irish long jumper (b. 1872).
  • 1970 – Charles de Gaulle, French general and politician, 18th President of France (b. 1890).
  • 1988 – John N. Mitchell, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 67th United States Attorney General (b. 1913).
  • 2006 – Markus Wolf, German intelligence officer (b. 1923).
  • 2012 – Joseph D. Early, American soldier and politician (b. 1933).
  • 2012 – James L. Stone, American colonel, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1922).
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