On This Day … 04 November

Events

  • 1429 – Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War: Joan of Arc liberates Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier.
  • 1576 – Eighty Years’ War: In Flanders, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city is nearly destroyed).
  • 1780 – The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II against Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty of Peru begins.
  • 1791 – Northwest Indian War: The Western Confederacy of American Indians wins a major victory over the United States in the Battle of the Wabash (aka St Clair’s Defeat).
  • 1798 – Beginning of the Russo-Ottoman siege of Corfu.
  • 1839 – Newport Rising: The last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.
  • 1847 – Sir James Young Simpson, a Scottish physician, discovers the anaesthetic properties of chloroform.
  • 1852 – Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, becomes the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which soon expands to become Italy.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Confederate troops bombard a Union supply base and destroy millions of dollars in material at the Battle of Johnsonville.
  • 1868 – Camagüey, Cuba, revolts against Spain during the Ten Years’ War.
  • 1918 – World War I: The Armistice of Villa Giusti between Italy and Austria-Hungary is implemented.
  • 1921 – The Saalschutz Abteilung (hall defence detachment) of the Nazi Party is renamed the Sturmabteilung (storm detachment) after a large riot in Munich.
  • 1936 – Spanish Civil War: Largo Caballero reshuffles his war cabinet, persuading the anarcho-syndicalist CNT to join the government.
  • 1939 – World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons by belligerents.
  • 1942 – World War II: Disobeying a direct order by Adolf Hitler, General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel begins a retreat of his forces after a costly defeat during the Second Battle of El Alamein.
    • The retreat would ultimately last five months.
  • 1944 – World War II: The 7th Macedonian Liberation Brigade liberates Bitola for the Allies.
  • 1952 – The United States government establishes the National Security Agency, or NSA.
  • 1956 – Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution against the Soviet Union that started on 23 October.
    • Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.
  • 1962 – The United States concludes Operation Fishbowl, its final above-ground nuclear weapons testing series, in anticipation of the 1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
  • 1970 – Vietnam War: The United States turns over control of the air base at Bình Thủy in the Mekong Delta to South Vietnam.
  • 1979 – Iran hostage crisis: A group of Iranian college students overruns the US embassy in Tehran and takes 90 hostages.
  • 1995 – Israel-Palestinian conflict: Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by an extremist Israeli.
  • National Unity and Armed Forces Day or Giorno dell’Unità Nazionale e Festa delle Forze Armate (Italy).

People (Births)

  • 1512 – Hu Zongxian, Chinese general (d. 1565).
  • 1883 – Nikolaos Plastiras, Greek general and politician 135th Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1953).
  • 1884 – Harry Ferguson, Irish engineer, invented the tractor (d. 1960).
  • 1909 – Evelyn Bryan Johnson, American colonel and pilot (d. 2012).
  • 1916 – John Basilone, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1945).
  • 1923 – Eugene Sledge, American soldier, author, and academic (d. 2001).
  • 1933 – C. Odumegwu Ojukwu, Nigerian colonel and politician, President of Biafra (d. 2011).
  • 1948 – Amadou Toumani Touré, Malian soldier and politician, President of Mali.
  • 1951 – Traian Băsescu, Romanian captain and politician, 4th President of Romania.
  • 1957 – Aleksandr Tkachyov, Russian gymnast and coach.
  • 1970 – Tim DeBoom, American triathlete.
  • 1982 – Kamila Skolimowska, Polish hammer thrower (d. 2009).
  • 1993 – Elisabeth Seitz, German gymnast.

People (Deaths)

  • 1581 – Mathurin Romegas, rival Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. c.1525).
  • 1702 – John Benbow, English admiral (b. 1653).
  • 1906 – John H. Ketcham, American general and politician (b. 1832).
  • 1918 – Wilfred Owen, English lieutenant and poet (b. 1893).
  • 1924 – Richard Conner, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1843).
  • 1930 – Akiyama Yoshifuru, Japanese general (b. 1859).
  • 1940 – Arthur Rostron, English captain (b. 1869).
  • 1946 – Rüdiger von der Goltz, German general (b. 1865).
  • 1968 – Michel Kikoine, Belarusian-French painter and soldier (b. 1892).
  • 1994 – Sam Francis, American soldier and painter (b. 1923).
  • 1995 – Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli general and politician, 5th Prime Minister of Israel, Nobel Peace Prize laureate (b. 1922).
  • 2011 – Arnold Green, Latvian-Estonian soldier and politician (b. 1920).
  • 2013 – John D. Hawk, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1924).
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