On This Day … 30 October

Events

  • 637 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Antioch surrenders to the Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of the Iron Bridge.
  • 758 – Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.
  • 1137 – Ranulf of Apulia defeats Roger II of Sicily at the Battle of Rignano, securing his position as duke until his death two years later.
  • 1270 – The Eighth Crusade ends by an agreement between Charles I of Anjou (replacing his deceased brother King Louis IX of France) and the Hafsid dynasty of Tunis, Tunisia.
  • 1340 – Reconquista: Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Muslim invasion at the Battle of Río Salado.
  • 1657 – Anglo-Spanish War: Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios.
  • 1806 – War of the Fourth Coalition: Convinced that he is facing a much larger force, Prussian General von Romberg, commanding 5,300 men, surrenders the city of Stettin to 800 French soldiers.
  • 1817 – Simón Bolívar becomes President of the Third Republic of Venezuela.
  • 1831 – Nat Turner is arrested for leading the bloodiest slave rebellion in United States history.
  • 1863 – Danish Prince Vilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.
  • 1864 – The Treaty of Vienna is signed, by which Denmark relinquishes one province each to Prussia and Austria.
  • 1918 – World War I: The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies.
  • 1918 – World War I: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, a state union of Kingdom of Hungary and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia is abolished with decisions of Croatian and Hungarian parliaments.
  • 1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H.G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing anxiety in some of the audience in the United States.
  • 1941 – President Roosevelt approves $1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
  • 1941 – Holocaust: Fifteen hundred Jews from Pidhaytsi are sent by Nazis to Bełżec extermination camp.
  • 1942 – World War II: Lt. Tony Fasson and Able Seaman Colin Grazier drown while taking code books from the sinking German submarine U-559.
  • 1944 – Holocaust: Anne and Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they die from disease the following year, shortly before the end of WWII.
  • 1953 – President Eisenhower approves the top-secret document NSC 162/2 concerning the maintenance of a strong nuclear deterrent force against the Soviet Union.
  • 1956 – Hungarian Revolution: The government recognises the new workers’ councils.
    • Army officer Béla Király leads an attack on the Communist Party headquarters.
  • 1961 – The Soviet Union detonates the Tsar Bomba, the most powerful explosive device ever detonated.
  • 1975 – Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain becomes acting head of state, taking over for the country’s ailing dictator, General Francisco Franco.
  • 1980 – El Salvador and Honduras agree to put the border dispute fought over in 1969’s Football War before the International Court of Justice.
  • 1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina, after seven years of military rule, are held.
  • 1991 – The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The Madrid Conference commences in an effort to revive peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine.
  • 2005 – The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (destroyed in the firebombing of Dresden during World War II) is reconsecrated after a thirteen-year rebuilding project.

People (Births)

  • 1558 – Jacques-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force, Marshal of France (d. 1652).
  • 1751 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish-English poet, playwright, and politician, Treasurer of the Navy (d. 1816).
  • 1786 – Philippe-Joseph Aubert de Gaspé, Canadian captain and author (d. 1871).
  • 1878 – Arthur Scherbius, German electrical engineer, invented the Enigma machine (d. 1929).
  • 1882 – William Halsey, Jr., American admiral (d. 1959).
  • 1882 – Günther von Kluge, Polish-German field marshal (d. 1944).
  • 1888 – Louis Menges, American soccer player, soldier, and politician (d. 1969).
  • 1893 – Roland Freisler, German soldier, lawyer, and judge (d. 1945).
  • 1896 – Harry Randall Truman, American soldier (d. 1980).
  • 1906 – Hermann Fegelein, German general (d. 1945).
  • 1908 – Dmitry Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union (d. 1984).
  • 1917 – Nikolai Ogarkov, Russian field marshal (d. 1994).
  • 1924 – John P. Craven, American soldier and engineer (d. 2015).
  • 1931 – Vince Callahan, American lieutenant and politician (d. 2014).
  • 1946 – Robert L. Gibson, American captain, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1947 – Glenn Andreotta, American soldier (d. 1968).

People (Deaths)

  • 1632 – Henri II de Montmorency, French admiral and politician (b. 1595).
  • 1685 – Michel Le Tellier, French lawyer and politician, French Secretary of State for War (b. 1603).
  • 1757 – Edward Vernon, English admiral and politician (b. 1684).
  • 1896 – Carol Benesch, Czech architect, designed Peleș Castle (b. 1822).
  • 1910 – Henry Dunant, Swiss activist, founded the Red Cross, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1828).
  • 1912 – Alejandro Gorostiaga, Chilean colonel (b. 1840).
  • 1917 – Talbot Mercer Papineau, Canadian lawyer and soldier (b. 1883).
  • 1979 – Barnes Wallis, English scientist and engineer, inventor of the “bouncing bomb” (b. 1887).
  • 2007 – John Woodruff, American runner and colonel (b. 1915).
  • 2014 – Elijah Malok Aleng, Sudanese general and politician (b. 1937).
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