On This Day … 26 October

Events

  • 1185 – The Uprising of Asen and Peter begins on the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki and ends with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
  • 1341 – The Byzantine civil war of 1341-1347 formally begins with the proclamation of John VI Kantakouzenos as Byzantine Emperor.
  • 1377 – Tvrtko I is crowned the first king of Bosnia.
  • 1520 – Charles V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1597 – Imjin War: Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin routs the Japanese Navy of 300 ships with only 13 ships at the Battle of Myeongnyang.
  • 1640 – The Treaty of Ripon is signed, restoring peace between Covenanter Scotland and King Charles.
  • 1689 – General Piccolomini of Austria burns down Skopje to prevent the spread of cholera; he died of the disease himself soon after.
  • 1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: A combined force of British regulars, Canadian militia, and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of the Chateauguay.
  • 1860 – The Expedition of the Thousand ends when Giuseppe Garibaldi presents his conquests to King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia.
  • 1905 – King Oscar II recognizes the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
  • 1909 – An Jung-geun assassinates Japan’s Resident-General of Korea.
  • 1912 – First Balkan War: The Ottomans lose the cities of Thessaloniki and Skopje.
  • 1917 – First World War: Brazil declares war on the Central Powers.
  • 1918 – Erich Ludendorff, quartermaster-general of the Imperial German Army, is dismissed by Kaiser Wilhelm II for refusing to cooperate in peace negotiations.
  • 1936 – The first electric generator at Hoover Dam goes into full operation.
  • 1942 – World War II: In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands during the Guadalcanal Campaign, one US aircraft carrier is sunk and another carrier is heavily damaged, while two Japanese carriers and one cruiser are heavily damaged.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf ends with an overwhelming American victory.
  • 1947 – Kashmir conflict: The Maharaja of Kashmir and Jammu signs the Instrument of Accession with India.
  • 1955 – After the last Allied troops have left the country, and following the provisions of the Austrian Independence Treaty, Austria declares that it will never join a military alliance.
  • 1955 – Ngô Đình Diệm declares himself Premier of South Vietnam.
  • 1956 – Hungarian Revolution: In the towns of Mosonmagyaróvár and Esztergom, Hungarian secret police forces massacre civilians. As rebel strongholds in Budapest hold, fighting spreads throughout the country.
  • 1967 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi crowns himself Emperor of Iran.
  • 1979 – Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea, is assassinated by Korean CIA head Kim Jae-gyu.
  • 1985 – The Australian government returns ownership of Uluru to the local Pitjantjatjara Aboriginals.
  • 1991 – Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People’s Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.
  • 1994 – Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
  • 2002 – Approximately 50 Chechen terrorists and 150 hostages die when Russian special forces troops storm a theatre building in Moscow, which had been occupied by the terrorists during a musical performance three days before.
  • Armed Forces Day (Benin).
  • National Day, celebrates the anniversary of the Declaration of Neutrality in 1955. (Austria).

People (Births)

  • 1473 – Friedrich of Saxony, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights (d. 1510).
  • 1609 – William Sprague, English-American settler, co-founded Charlestown, Massachusetts (d. 1675).
  • 1684 – Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin, Prussian field marshal (d. 1757).
  • 1768 – Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko, Polish general and politician (d. 1844).
  • 1800 – Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Prussian field marshal (d. 1891).
  • 1842 – Vasily Vereshchagin, Russian soldier and painter (d. 1904).
  • 1900 – Ibrahim Abboud, Sudanese politician and general, 1st President of Sudan (d. 1983).
  • 1915 – Ray Crawford, American race car driver, fighter ace, test pilot, and businessman (d. 1996).
  • 1916 – Boyd Wagner, American colonel and pilot (d. 1942).
  • 1919 – Edward Brooke, American captain and politician, 47th Massachusetts Attorney General (d. 2015).
  • 1959 – Evo Morales, Bolivian soldier and politician, 80th President of Bolivia.

People (Deaths)

  • 1111 – Gómez González, Castilian nobleman and military leader.
  • 1609 – Matsudaira Tadayori, Japanese samurai and daimyō (b. 1582).
  • 1633 – Horio Tadaharu, Japanese daimyō (b. 1596).
  • 1675 – William Sprague, English settler, co-founded Charlestown, Massachusetts (b. 1609).
  • 1686 – John Egerton, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, English captain and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire (b. 1623).
  • 1806 – John Graves Simcoe, English general and politician, 1st Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (b. 1752).
  • 1864 – William T. Anderson, American captain (b. 1838).
  • 1871 – Robert Anderson (Civil War), American general (b. 1805).
  • 1909 – Itō Hirobumi, Japanese samurai and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1841).
  • 1919 – Akashi Motojiro, Japanese general (b. 1864).
  • 1937 – Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki, Polish general (b. 1867).
  • 1944 – Hiroyoshi Nishizawa, Japanese lieutenant and pilot (b. 1920).
  • 1949 – Lionel Halsey, English admiral and courtier (b. 1872).
  • 1960 – Toshizō Nishio, Japanese general (b. 1881).
  • 1961 – Sadae Inoue, Japanese general (b. 1886).
  • 1972 – Igor Sikorsky, Ukrainian-American engineer and academic, founded Sikorsky Aircraft (b. 1889).
  • 1973 – Semyon Budyonny, Marshal of the Soviet Union (b. 1883).
  • 1979 – Park Chung-hee, South Korean general and politician, 3rd President of South Korea (b. 1917).
  • 2002 – Jacques Massu, French general (b. 1908).
  • 2012 – Alan Stretton, Australian general (b. 1922).
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