On This Day … 25 October

Events

  • 1147 – Seljuk Turks defeat German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
  • 1147 – Reconquista: After a siege of four months, crusader knights reconquer Lisbon.
  • 1415 – Hundred Years’ War: Henry V of England, with his lightly armoured infantry and archers, defeats the heavily armoured French cavalry in the Battle of Agincourt.
  • 1616 – Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes the second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast.
  • 1747 – War of the Austrian Succession: A British fleet under Admiral Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre.
  • 1760 – King George III succeeds to the British throne on the death of his grandfather George II.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian.
  • 1822 – Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins.
  • 1854 – The Battle of Balaclava takes place during the Crimean War. It is soon memorialised in verse as The Charge of the Light Brigade.
  • 1900 – The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.
  • 1917 – Old Style date of the October Revolution in Russia.
  • 1940 – Benjamin O. Davis Sr. is named the first African American general in the United States Army.
  • 1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organised youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
  • 1944 – World War II: The USS Tang under Richard O’Kane (the top American submarine ace of the war) is sunk by the ship’s own malfunctioning torpedo.
  • 1944 – World War II: The final attempt of the Imperial Japanese Navy to win the war climaxes at the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
  • 1945 – Fifty years of Japanese administration of Taiwan formally ends when the Republic of China assumes control.
    • Retrocession Day (Taiwan).
  • 1949 – The Battle of Guningtou in the Taiwan Strait begins.
  • 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows the United Nations Security Council reconnaissance photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba.
  • 1971 – The People’s Republic of China replaces the Republic of China at the United Nations.
  • 1973 – Egypt and Israel accept United Nations Security Council Resolution 339.
  • 1983 – The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d’état.
  • 1997 – After a civil war, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself President of the Republic of the Congo.
  • Armed Forces Day (Romania).

People (Births)

  • 1612 – James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, Scottish soldier (d. 1650).
  • 1755 – François Joseph Lefebvre, French military commander (d. 1820).
  • 1772 – Géraud Duroc, French general and diplomat (d. 1813).
  • 1779 – Pedro Velarde y Santillán, Spanish artillery captain (d. 1808).
  • 1789 – Carlos María de Alvear, Argentine soldier and statesman (d. 1852).
  • 1800 – Thomas Babington Macaulay, English poet, historian, and politician, Secretary at War (d. 1859).
  • 1867 – Józef Dowbor-Muśnicki, Polish general (d. 1937).
  • 1874 – Huang Xing, Chinese revolutionary leader and statesman (d. 1916).
  • 1883 – Nikolay Krestinsky, Russian revolutionary and politician (d. 1938).
  • 1888 – Richard E. Byrd, American admiral and pilot (d. 1957).
  • 1895 – Levi Eshkol, Ukrainian-Israeli soldier and politician, 3rd Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1969).
  • 1895 – Vsevolod Merkulov, Russian head of the NKGB (d. 1953).
  • 1895 – Arthur Schmidt, German officer (d. 1987).
  • 1897 – Erwin von Lahousen, German Abwehr official (d. 1955).
  • 1908 – Gotthard Handrick, German fighter pilot and Olympic athlete (d. 1978).
  • 1913 – Klaus Barbie, German SS captain (d. 1991).
  • 1935 – Rusty Schweickart, American soldier, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1952 – Samir Geagea, Lebanese commander and politician.

People (Death)

  • 1230 – Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Gloucester, English soldier (b. 1180).
  • 1415 – Michael de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk, English soldier (b. 1394).
  • 1806 – Henry Knox, American general and politician, 2nd United States Secretary of War (b. 1750).
  • 1941 – Franz von Werra, Swiss-German captain and pilot (b. 1914).
  • 1971 – Mikhail Yangel, Soviet missile designer (b. 1911).
  • 1979 – Gerald Templer, English field marshal and politician, British High Commissioner in Malaya (b. 1898).
  • 1994 – Kara Hultgreen, American lieutenant and pilot (b. 1965).
  • 2000 – Mochitsura Hashimoto, Japanese commander (b. 1909).
  • 2013 – Nicholas Hunt, Welsh-English admiral (b. 1930).
  • 2016 – Bob Hoover, USAF, Test, and Airshow pilot (b. 1922).
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