- 690 – Empress Wu Zetian establishes the Zhou Dynasty of China.
- 1346 – The English capture King David II of Scotland at Neville’s Cross and imprison him for eleven years.
- 1448 – An Ottoman army defeats a Hungarian army at the Second Battle of Kosovo.
- 1660 – The Nine regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I of England are hanged, drawn and quartered.
- 1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkirk to Louis XIV of France for 40,000 pounds.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: British General Charles, Earl Cornwallis surrenders at the Siege of Yorktown.
- 1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Britain takes control of the Dutch colony of Curaçao.
- 1806 – Former leader of the Haitian Revolution, Emperor Jacques I, is assassinated after an oppressive rule.
- 1861 – Aboriginal Australians kill Nineteen Europeans in the Cullin-la-ringo massacre.
- 1912 – Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia declare war on the Ottoman Empire, joining Montenegro in the First Balkan War.
- 1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.
- 1940 – The body of Communist propagandist Willi Münzenberg found in South France, starting a never-resolved mystery.
- 1941 – World War II: The USS Kearny becomes the first US Navy vessel to be torpedoed by a U-boat.
- 1943 – The Burma Railway (Burma–Thailand Railway) is completed.
- 1943 – Nazi Holocaust in Poland: Sobibór extermination camp is closed.
- 1973 – OPEC imposes an oil embargo against countries they deem to have helped Israel in the Yom Kippur War.
- 1994 – Russian journalist Dmitry Kholodov is assassinated while investigating corruption in the armed forces.
- 1833 – José E. Días, Paraguayan general (d. 1867).
- 1882 – Haritina Korotkevich, Russian war heroine (d. 1904).
- 1892 – Theodor Eicke, German SS general (d. 1943).
- 1903 – Andrei Grechko, Soviet general (d. 1976).
- 1913 – Faik Türün, Turkish general (d. 2003).
- 1919 – Violet Milstead, Canadian World War II aviator and bush pilot (d. 2014).
- 1924 – Anton Geiser, Croatian SS officer (d. 2012).
- 1930 – Robert Atkins, American physician and cardiologist, created the Atkins diet (d. 2003).
- 1933 – William Anders, Hong Kong-American general and astronaut.
- 1948 – Robert Jordan, American soldier and author (d. 2007).
- 1586 – Philip Sidney, English courtier, poet, and general (b. 1554).
- 1660 – Adrian Scrope, English colonel and politician (b. 1601).
- 1781 – Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, English admiral (b. 1705).
- 1806 – Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Haitian commander and politician, Governor-General of Haiti (b. 1758).
- 1868 – Laura Secord, Canadian war heroine (b. 1775).
- 1893 – Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, French general and politician, 3rd President of France (b. 1808).
- 1966 – Sidney Hatch, American runner and soldier (b. 1883).
- 1978 – Giovanni Gronchi, Italian educator, soldier, and politician, 3rd President of the Italian Republic (b. 1887).
- 2001 – Rehavam Ze’evi, Israeli historian, general, and politician, Tourism Minister of Israel (b. 1926).
- 2008 – Ben Weider, Canadian businessman, co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (b. 1923).
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