On This Day … 15 Ocotber

Events

  • 1066 – Following the death of Harold II at the Battle of Hastings, Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England by the Witan; he is never crowned, and concedes power to William the Conqueror two months later.
  • 1211 – Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Laskaris.
  • 1529 – The Siege of Vienna ends when Austria routs the invading Ottoman forces, ending its European expansion.
  • 1582 – Adoption of the Gregorian calendar begins, eventually leading to near-universal adoption.
  • 1783 – The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon makes the first human ascent, piloted by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.
  • 1809 – The Viceroy the Río de la Plata, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, opens the port of Buenos Aires to trade with nations other than Spain.
  • 1815 – Napoleon begins his exile on Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
  • 1863 – American Civil War: The H.L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks, killing its inventor.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: The Union garrison of Glasgow, Missouri surrenders to Confederate forces.
  • 1878 – The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.
  • 1910 – Airship America is launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.
  • 1917 – World War I: Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by France for espionage.
  • 1923 – The German Rentenmark is introduced in Germany to counter hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic.
  • 1928 – The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.
  • 1940 – President Lluís Companys of Catalonia is executed by the Francoist government.
  • 1944 – World War II: Germany replaces the Hungarian government after it announces an armistice with the Soviet Union.
  • 1945 – The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed for treason.
  • 1965 – Vietnam War: A draft card is burned during an anti-war rally by the Catholic Worker Movement, resulting in the first arrest under a new law.
  • 1979 – A coup d’état in El Salvador overthrows President Carlos Humberto Romero and begins the 12 year-long Salvadoran Civil War.
  • 1990 – Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.
  • 1995 – Saddam Hussein is re-elected president of Iraq through a referendum.
  • Earliest day on which Heroes’ Day can fall, while October 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday in October (Jamaica).

People (Births)

  • 1622 – Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, Swedish statesman and military man (d. 1686).
  • 1784 – Thomas Robert Bugeaud, French general and politician, Governor-General of Algeria (d. 1849).
  • 1785 – José Miguel Carrera, Chilean general and politician (d. 1821).
  • 1894 – Moshe Sharett, Ukrainian-Israeli lieutenant and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of Israel (d. 1965).
  • 1897 – Johannes Sikkar, Estonian soldier and politician, Prime Minister of Estonia in exile (d. 1960).
  • 1906 – Hiram Fong, American soldier and politician (d. 2004).
  • 1913 – Wolfgang Lüth, German commander (d. 1945).
  • 1919 – Malcolm Ross, American captain, balloonist, and physicist (d. 1985).
  • 1926 – James E. Akins, American soldier and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (d. 2010).
  • 1942 – Harold W. Gehman, Jr., American admiral.
  • 1964 – Roberto Vittori, Italian colonel, pilot, and astronaut.

People (Deaths)

  • 1788 – Samuel Greig, Scottish-Russian admiral (b. 1735).
  • 1810 – Alfred Moore, American captain and judge (b. 1755).
  • 1817 – Tadeusz Kościuszko, Polish-Lithuanian general and engineer (b. 1746).
  • 1819 – Sergey Vyazmitinov, Russian general and politician, War Governor of Saint Petersburg (b. 1744).
  • 1925 – Dolores Jiménez y Muro, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1848?).
  • 1946 – Hermann Göring, German general and politician (b. 1893).
  • 1959 – Stepan Bandera, Ukrainian soldier and politician (b. 1909).
  • 1963 – Horton Smith, American golfer and captain (b. 1908).
  • 1966 – Frederick Montague, 1st Baron Amwell, English lieutenant and politician (b. 1876).
  • 1987 – Thomas Sankara, Burkinabe captain and politician, 5th President of Burkina Faso (b. 1949).
  • 1999 – Josef Locke, British-Irish soldier, policeman, tenor and actor (b. 1917).
  • 2008 – Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca, Turkish soldier and poet (b. 1914).
  • 2012 – Claude Cheysson, French lieutenant and politician, French Minister of Foreign Affairs (b. 1920).
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