On This Day … 09 October

Events

  • 768 – Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned kings of the Franks.
  • 1238 – James I of Aragon founds the Kingdom of Valencia.
  • 1594 – Troops of the Portuguese Empire are defeated on Sri Lanka, bringing an end to the Campaign of Danture.
  • 1708 – Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.
  • 1740 – Dutch colonists and Javanese natives begin a massacre of the ethnic Chinese population in Batavia, eventually killing at least 10,000.
  • 1760 – Seven Years’ War: Russian and Austrian troops briefly occupy Berlin.
  • 1799 – HMS Lutine sinks with the loss of 240 men and a cargo worth £1,200,000.
  • 1804 – Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.
  • 1806 – Prussia begins the War of the Fourth Coalition against France.
  • 1812 – War of 1812: In a naval engagement on Lake Erie, American forces capture two British ships: HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia.
  • 1820 – Guayaquil declares independence from Spain.
  • 1854 – Crimean War: The siege of Sevastopol begins.
  • 1861 – American Civil War: Union troops repel a Confederate attempt to capture Fort Pickens.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: Union cavalrymen defeat Confederate forces at Toms Brook, Virginia.
  • 1873 – A meeting at the US Naval Academy establishes the US Naval Institute.
  • 1874 – The Universal Postal Union is created by the Treaty of Bern.
  • 1900 – The Cook Islands become a territory of the United Kingdom.
  • 1911 – An accidental bomb explosion triggers the Wuchang Uprising against the Chinese monarchy.
  • 1914 – World War I: The Siege of Antwerp comes to an end.
  • 1918 – The Finnish Parliament offers to Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse the throne of a short-lived Kingdom of Finland.
  • 1937 – Murder of 9 Catholic priests in Zhengding, China, who protected the local population from the advancing Japanese army.
  • 1941 – A coup in Panama declares Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango the new president.
  • 1942 – Australia’s Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 receives royal assent.
  • 1950 – The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins.
  • 1962 – Uganda becomes an independent Commonwealth realm.
  • 1966 – Vietnam War: South Korean troops commit the Binh Tai Massacre.
  • 1967 – A day after his capture, Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.
  • 1969 – In Chicago, the National Guard is called in as demonstrations continue over the trial of the “Chicago Eight”.
  • 1970 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia.
  • 2006 – North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.
  • 2016 – The Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army launches its first attack on Myanmar security forces along the Bangladesh–Myanmar border.
  • 2019 – Turkey begins its military offensive in north-eastern Syria.
  • National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust (Romania).

People (Births)

  • 1864 – Reginald Dyer, British brigadier general (d. 1927).
  • 1907 – Horst Wessel, German SA officer (d. 1930).
  • 1908 – Werner von Haeften, German lieutenant (d. 1944).
  • 1918 – Charles Read, Australian air marshal (d. 2014).
  • 1924 – Immanuvel Devendrar, Indian soldier (d. 1957).
  • 1930 – Hank Lauricella, American football player, lieutenant, and politician (d. 2014).
  • 1933 – Bill Tidy, English soldier and cartoonist.
  • 1940 – Gordon J. Humphrey, American soldier, pilot, and politician.
  • 1962 – Hugh Robertson, English soldier and politician, Minister for Sport and the Olympics.

People (Deaths)

  • 1945 – Gottlieb Hering, German captain (b. 1887).
  • 1959 – Shirō Ishii, Japanese general and biologist (b. 1892).
  • 1967 – Che Guevara, Argentinian-Cuban physician, politician and guerrilla leader (b. 1928).
  • 1967 – André Maurois, French soldier and author (b. 1885).
  • 1967 – Joseph Pilates, German-American fitness trainer, developed Pilates (b. 1883).
  • 1976 – Walter Warlimont, German general (b. 1894).
  • 1985 – Emílio Garrastazu Médici, Brazilian general and politician, 28th President of Brazil (b. 1905).
  • 2000 – Patrick Anthony Porteous, Indian-Scottish colonel, Victoria Cross recipient (b. 1918).
  • 2014 – Peter A. Peyser, American soldier and politician (b. 1921).
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