On This Day … 08 October

Events

  • 314 – At the Battle of Cibalae, Constantine I defeats Roman Emperor Licinius, who loses his European territories.
  • 876 – Frankish forces led by Louis the Younger prevent a West Frankish invasion and defeat emperor Charles II (“the Bald”).
  • 1322 – Mladen II Šubić of Bribir is deposed as the Croatian Ban after the Battle of Bliska.
  • 1480 – The Great stand on the Ugra river puts an end to Tartar rule over Moscow
  • 1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in the Eighty Years’ War.
  • 1813 – The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.
  • 1821 – The Peruvian Navy is established during the War of Independence.
  • 1829 – Stephenson’s Rocket wins the Rainhill Trials.
  • 1856 – The Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: The Confederate invasion of Kentucky is halted at the Battle of Perryville.
  • 1879 – War of the Pacific: The Chilean Navy defeats the Peruvian Navy in the Battle of Angamos.
  • 1895 – Korean Empress Myeongseong is assassinated by Japanese infiltrators.
  • 1912 – The First Balkan War begins when Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1918 – World War I: Corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132 for which he was awarded the Medal of Honour.
  • 1939 – World War II: Germany annexes western Poland.
  • 1941 – World War II: During the preliminaries of the Battle of Rostov, German forces reach the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.
  • 1943 – World War II: Around 30 civilians are executed by Friedrich Schubert’s paramilitary group in Kallikratis, Crete.
  • 1944 – World War II: Captain Bobbie Brown earns a Medal of Honour for his actions during the Battle of Crucifix Hill, just outside Aachen.
  • 1962 – Der Spiegel publishes an article disclosing the sorry state of the Bundeswehr (German Federal Defence Forces), and is soon accused of treason.
  • 1967 – Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.
  • 1973 – Yom Kippur War: Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian-occupied positions.
  • 1973 – Spyros Markezinis begins his 48-day term as prime minister in an abortive attempt to lead Greece to parliamentary rule.
  • Air Force Day (India).
  • Navy Day (Peru).

People (Births)

  • 319 BC – Pyrrhus of Epirus (d. 272 BC).
  • 1876 – Frederick Montague, 1st Baron Amwell, English lieutenant and politician (d. 1966).
  • 1884 – Walther von Reichenau, German field marshal (d. 1942).
  • 1890 – Eddie Rickenbacker, American soldier and pilot, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1973).
  • 1895 – Zog I of Albania (d. 1961).
  • 1895 – Juan Perón, Argentinian general and politician, 29th President of Argentina (d. 1974).
  • 1910 – Gus Hall, American soldier and politician (d. 2000).
  • 1910 – Helmut Kallmeyer, German chemist and soldier (d. 2006).
  • 1958 – Ursula von der Leyen, Belgian-German physician and politician, Defense Minister of Germany.
  • 1959 – Carlos I. Noriega, Peruvian-American colonel and astronaut.
  • 1970 – Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, Congolese colonel.

People (Deaths)

  • 1621 – Antoine de Montchrestien, French soldier, playwright, and economist (b. 1575).
  • 1802 – Emmanuele Vitale, Maltese general and politician (b. 1758).
  • 1869 – Franklin Pierce, American general, lawyer, and politician, 14th President of the United States (b. 1804).
  • 1879 – Miguel Grau Seminario, Peruvian admiral (b. 1834).
  • 1931 – John Monash, Australian general and engineer (b. 1865).
  • 1944 – Wendell Willkie, American captain, lawyer, and politician (b. 1892).
  • 1967 – Clement Attlee, English soldier, lawyer, and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1883).
  • 1979 – Brian Edmund Baker, English air marshal (b. 1896).
  • 1985 – Malcolm Ross, American captain, physicist, and balloonist (b. 1919).
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