On This Day … 03 October

Events

  • 2457 BC – Gaecheonjeol, Hwanung (환웅) purportedly descended from heaven. South Korea’s National Foundation Day.
    • National Foundation Day or Gaecheonjeol (South Korea).
  • 52 BC – Vercingetorix, leader of the Gauls, surrenders to the Romans under Julius Caesar, ending the siege and battle of Alesia.
  • 42 BC – Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight a decisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius (Battle of Philippi).
  • 382 – Roman Emperor Theodosius I concludes a peace treaty with the Goths and settles them in the Balkans.
  • 1283 – Dafydd ap Gruffydd, prince of Gwynedd in Wales, is the first nobleman to be executed by hanging, drawing and quartering.
  • 1392 – Muhammed VII becomes the twelfth sultan of the Emirate of Granada.
  • 1574 – The Siege of Leiden is lifted by the Watergeuzen.
  • 1683 – Qing dynasty naval commander Shi Lang receives the surrender of the Tungning kingdom on Taiwan after the Battle of Penghu.
  • 1712 – The Duke of Montrose issues a warrant for the arrest of Rob Roy MacGregor.
  • 1739 – The Treaty of Niš is signed by the Ottoman Empire and Russia at the end of the Russian–Turkish War.
  • 1792 – A militia departs from the Spanish stronghold of Valdivia to quell a Huilliche uprising in southern Chile.
  • 1873 – Chief Kintpuash and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War of northern California.
  • 1912 – US forces defeat Nicaraguan rebels at the Battle of Coyotepe Hill.
  • 1929 – The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed to Yugoslavia by King Alexander I.
  • 1932 – Iraq gains independence from the United Kingdom.
    • National Day, celebrates the independence of Iraq from the United Kingdom in 1932.
  • 1935 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy invades Ethiopia.
  • 1942 – A German V-2 rocket reaches a record 85 km (46 nm) in altitude.
  • 1943 – World War II: German forces murder 92 civilians in Lyngiades, Greece.
  • 1951 – Korean War: The First Battle of Maryang San pits Commonwealth troops against communist Chinese troops.
  • 1952 – The United Kingdom successfully tests a nuclear weapon to become the world’s third nuclear power.
  • 1963 – A violent coup in Honduras begins two decades of military rule.
  • 1978 – A Finnish Air Force DC-3 crashes, killing all 15 people on board.
  • 1989 – A coup in Panama City is suppressed and 11 participants are executed.
  • 1990 – The German Democratic Republic is abolished and becomes part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
    • German Unity Day (Germany).
  • 1993 – An American attack against a warlord in Mogadishu fails; eighteen US soldiers and over 350 Somalis die.
  • 2015 – Forty-two are killed and 33 go missing in the Kunduz hospital airstrike.

People (Births)

  • 1800 – George Bancroft, American historian and politician, 17th United States Secretary of the Navy (d. 1891).
  • 1886 – Alain-Fournier, French soldier, author, and critic (d. 1914).
  • 1894 – Walter Warlimont, German general (d. 1976).
  • 1904 – Ernst-Günther Schenck, German colonel and physician (d. 1998).
  • 1905 – Tekin Arıburun, Turkish soldier and politician, President of Turkey (d. 1993).
  • 1921 – Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer and soldier (d. 1996).
  • 1935 – Charles Duke, American general, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1938 – David Hart Dyke, English captain.
  • 1943 – Jeff Bingaman, American soldier and politician, 25th Attorney General of New Mexico.

People (Deaths)

  • 1629 – Giorgi Saakadze, Georgian commander and politician (b. 1570).
  • 1801 – Philippe Henri, marquis de Ségur, French general and politician, French Minister of Defence (b. 1724).
  • 1833 – François, marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat, French general and engineer (b. 1754).
  • 1867 – Elias Howe, American engineer, invented the sewing machine (b. 1819).
  • 1877 – Rómulo Díaz de la Vega, Mexican general and president (1855) (b. 1800).
  • 1963 – Refet Bele, Turkish general (b. 1877).
  • 1988 – Franz Josef Strauss, Bavarian lieutenant and politician, Minister President of Bavaria (b. 1915).
  • 1993 – Gary Gordon, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1960).
  • 1993 – Randy Shughart, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1958).
  • 2005 – Nurettin Ersin, Turkish general (b. 1918).
  • 2015 – Denis Healey, English soldier and politician, Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer (b. 1917).
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