- 939 – Battle of Andernach: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes.
- 1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.
- 1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.
- 1470 – The Earl of Warwick’s rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne.
- 1535 – Jacques Cartier discovers the present site of Montreal.
- 1552 – Russo-Kazan Wars: Russian troops enter Kazan.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: John André, a British Army officer, is hanged as a spy by the Continental Army.
- 1814 – Chilean War of Independence: Royalist troops defeat Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera.
- 1835 – Texas Revolution: Mexican troops attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Confederates defeat a Union attack on Saltville, Virginia. A massacre of wounded Union prisoners (most of them are from a Black cavalry unit) ensues.
- 1870 – By plebiscite, the citizens of the Papal States accept annexation by the Kingdom of Italy.
- 1937 – Rafael Trujillo orders the execution of Haitians living in the northwestern region of the Dominican Republic.
- 1941 – World War II: In Operation Typhoon, the Wehrmacht attempts to capture Moscow before the onset of winter.
- 1942 – World War II: Ocean Liner RMS Queen Mary accidentally rams and sinks HMS Curacoa, killing 337 crewmen aboard Curacoa.
- 1944 – World War II: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.
- 1958 – Guinea declares its independence from France.
- 1968 – Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz orders soldiers to suppress a demonstration of unarmed students, ten days before the start of the 1968 Summer Olympics.
- 1980 – Michael Myers becomes the first member of either chamber of Congress to be expelled since the American Civil War.
- 1992 – Military police storm the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil during a prison riot.
- The resulting massacre leaves 111 prisoners dead.
- 2004 – The first parkrun, then known as the Bushy Park Time Trial, takes place in Bushy Park, London, UK.
- 2007 – President Roh Moo-hyun of South Korea goes to North Korea for an Inter-Korean summit with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.
- 1768 – William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, English general and politician (d. 1854).
- 1821 – Alexander P. Stewart, American general (d. 1908).
- 1847 – Paul von Hindenburg, German field marshal and politician, 2nd President of Germany (d. 1934).
- 1851 – Ferdinand Foch, French field marshal and theorist (d. 1929).
- 1869 – Mahatma Gandhi, Indian freedom fighter, activist and philosopher (d. 1948).
- 1871 – Cordell Hull, American captain, lawyer, and politician, 47th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955).
- 1882 – Boris Shaposhnikov, Russian colonel (d. 1945).
- 1895 – Ruth Cheney Streeter, American colonel (d. 1990).
- 1902 – John G. Crommelin, American admiral and politician (d. 1996).
- 1921 – Albert Scott Crossfield, American pilot and engineer (d. 2006).
- 1946 – Sonthi Boonyaratglin, Thai general and politician.
- 1948 – Siim Kallas, Estonian soldier and politician, 13th Prime Minister of Estonia.
- 1708 – Anne Jules de Noailles, French general (b. 1650).
- 1746 – Josiah Burchett, English admiral and politician (b. 1666).
- 1780 – John André, English soldier (b. 1750).
- 1782 – Charles Lee, English-born American general (b. 1732).
- 1786 – Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel, English admiral and politician (b. 1725).
- 1938 – Alexandru Averescu, Romanian field marshal and politician, 24th Prime Minister of Romania (b. 1859).
- 2014 – Vaughn O. Lang, American general (b. 1927).
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