On This Day … 25 September

Events

  • 275 – For the last time, the Roman Senate chooses an emperor; they elect 75-year-old Marcus Claudius Tacitus.
  • 762 – Led by Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, the Hasanid branch of the Alids begins the Alid Revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • 1066 – In the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harald Hardrada, the invading King of Norway, is defeated by King Harold II of England.
  • 1237 – England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.
  • 1396 – Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis.
  • 1513 – Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches what would become known as the Pacific Ocean.
  • 1555 – The Peace of Augsburg is signed by Emperor Charles V and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
  • 1775 – American Revolution: Ethan Allen surrenders to British forces after attempting to capture Montreal during the Battle of Longue-Pointe.
  • 1775 – American Revolution: Benedict Arnold’s expedition to Quebec sets off.
  • 1868 – The Imperial Russian steam frigate Alexander Nevsky is shipwrecked off Jutland while carrying Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia.
  • 1906 – Leonardo Torres y Quevedo demonstrates the Telekino, guiding a boat from the shore, in what is considered to be the first use of a remote control.
  • 1911 – An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonates the forward ammunition magazines and destroys the ship.
  • 1915 – World War I: The Second Battle of Champagne begins.
  • 1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese Eighth Route Army gains a minor, but morale-boosting victory in the Battle of Pingxingguan.
  • 1944 – World War II: Surviving elements of the British 1st Airborne Division withdraw from Arnhem via Oosterbeek.
  • 1955 – The Royal Jordanian Air Force is founded.
  • 1956 – TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable system, is inaugurated.
  • 1957 – Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, is integrated by the use of United States Army troops.
  • 1962 – The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is formally proclaimed.
    • Ferhat Abbas is elected President of the provisional government.
  • 1962 – The North Yemen Civil War begins when Abdullah al-Sallal dethrones the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declares Yemen a republic under his presidency.
  • 1963 – Lord Denning releases the UK government’s official report on the Profumo affair.
  • 1964 – The Mozambican War of Independence against Portugal begins.
    • Armed Forces Day or Revolution Day (Mozambique).
  • 1977 – About 4,200 people take part in the first running of the Chicago Marathon.
  • 1983 – Thirty-eight IRA prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of the Maze Prison.
  • Day of National Recognition for the Harkis (France).

People (Births)

  • 1358 – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Japanese shōgun (d. 1408).
  • 1764 – Fletcher Christian, English sailor (d. 1793).
  • 1766 – Armand-Emmanuel de Vignerot du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, French general and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of France (d. 1822).
  • 1771 – Nikolay Raevsky, Russian general and politician (d. 1829).
  • 1867 – Yevgeny Miller, Russian general (d. 1938).
  • 1877 – Plutarco Elías Calles, Mexican general and President (d. 1945).
  • 1900 – Artur Sirk, Estonian soldier, lawyer, and politician (d. 1937).
  • 1914 – John Manners, English naval officer and cricketer[6] (d. 2020).
  • 1921 – Rob Muldoon, New Zealand sergeant, accountant, and politician, 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand (d. 1992).
  • 1936 – Moussa Traoré, Malian general and politician 2nd President of Mali (d. 2020).
  • 1943 – Robert Gates, American lieutenant, academic, and politician, 22nd United States Secretary of Defence.
  • 1957 – Vladimir Popovkin, Russian general (d. 2014).

People (Deaths)

  • 1333 – Prince Morikuni, Japanese shōgun (b. 1301).
  • 1396 – Jean de Carrouges, French knight (b. 1330).
  • 1396 – Jean de Vienne, French general and admiral (b. 1341).
  • 1496 – Piero Capponi, Italian soldier and politician (b. 1447).
  • 1630 – Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases, Italian general and politician, Governor of the Duchy of Milan (b. 1569).
  • 1703 – Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll, Scottish general (b. 1658).
  • 1774 – John Bradstreet, Canadian-English general (b. 1714).
  • 1791 – William Bradford, American soldier and publisher (b. 1719).
  • 1900 – John M. Palmer, American general and politician, 15th Governor of Illinois (b. 1817).
  • 1901 – Arthur Fremantle, English general and politician, Governor of Malta (b. 1835).
  • 1917 – Thomas Ashe, Irish Republican Brotherhood volunteer, and rebel commander (b. 1885).
  • 1918 – Mikhail Alekseyev, Russian general (b. 1857).
  • 1939 – Ali Saip Ursavaş, Turkish soldier and politician (b. 1885).
  • 1991 – Klaus Barbie, German SS captain, known as the “Butcher of Lyon” (b. 1913).
  • 2015 – John Galvin, American general (b. 1929).
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