- 1568 – Spanish naval forces defeat an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.
- 1645 – The Battle of Rowton Heath is a Parliamentarian victory over a Royalist army commanded in person by King Charles.
- 1830 – A revolutionary committee of notables forms the Provisional Government of Belgium.
- 1841 – The Sultanate of Brunei cedes Sarawak to the United Kingdom.
- 1846 – Mexican–American War: General Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey.
- 1852 – The first airship powered by (a steam) engine, created by Henri Giffard, travels 17 miles (27 km) from Paris to Trappes.
- 1853 – Admiral Despointes formally takes possession of New Caledonia in the name of France.
- 1877 – The Battle of Shiroyama is a decisive victory of the Imperial Japanese Army over the Satsuma Rebellion.
- 1911 – His Majesty’s Airship No. 1, Britain’s first rigid airship, is wrecked by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness.
- 1929 – Jimmy Doolittle performs the first flight without a window, proving that full instrument flying from take off to landing is possible.
- 1946 – The top-secret Clifford-Elsey Report on the Soviet Union is delivered to President Truman.
- 1957 – President Eisenhower sends the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce desegregation.
- 1960 – USS Enterprise, the world’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is launched.
- 1973 – Guinea-Bissau declares its independence from Portugal.
- 1993 – The Cambodian monarchy is restored, with Norodom Sihanouk as king.
- 1996 – Representatives of 71 nations sign the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.
- Armed Forces Day (Peru).
- 1301 – Ralph de Stafford, 1st Earl of Stafford, English soldier (d. 1372).
- 1583 – Albrecht von Wallenstein, Bohemian general (d. 1634).
- 1705 – Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, Austrian field marshal (d. 1766).
- 1755 – John Marshall, American Continental Army officer, jurist, and politician, 4th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (d. 1835).
- 1884 – İsmet İnönü, Turkish general and politician, 2nd President of Turkey (d. 1973).
- 1884 – Hugo Schmeisser, German weapons designer and engineer (d. 1953).
- 1912 – Robert Lewis Taylor, American soldier and author (d. 1998).
- 1920 – Richard Bong, American soldier and pilot, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 1945).
- 1934 – Manfred Wörner, German politician and diplomat, 7th Secretary General of NATO (d. 1994).
- 1969 – Paul Ray Smith, American sergeant, Medal of Honour recipient (d. 2003).
- 887 – Gao Pian, general of the Tang Dynasty (b. 821).
- 1621 – Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, Polish commander (b. 1560).
- 1889 – D.H. Hill, American general and academic (b. 1821).
- 1892 – Patrick Gilmore, Irish-American soldier and composer (b. 1829).
- 1978 – Hasso von Manteuffel, German general and politician (b. 1897).
- 2006 – Michael Ferguson, PIRA volunteer, lawyer, and politician (b. 1953).
- 2006 – Phil Latulippe, Canadian soldier and runner (b. 1909).
- 2013 – Sagadat Nurmagambetov, Kazakh general and politician (b. 1924).