- 1338 – The Battle of Arnemuiden, in which a French force defeats the English, is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years’ War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.
- 1409 – The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368.
- 1459 – The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.
- 1779 – American Revolution: John Paul Jones, naval commander of the United States, on board the USS Bonhomme Richard, wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.
- 1780 – American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold’s change of sides.
- 1803 – Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
- 1821 – Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence.
- 1868 – Grito de Lares (“Lares Revolt”) occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule.
- 1899 – The American Asiatic Squadron destroys a Filipino battery at the Battle of Olongapo.
- 1905 – Norway and Sweden sign the “Karlstad treaty”, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.
- 1932 – The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.
- 1938 – The Czechoslovak army is mobilised in response to the Munich Agreement.
- 1942 – World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: US Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
- 1943 – World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.
- 1950 – Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.
- Holocaust Memorial Day (Lithuania).
- 63 BC – Augustus, Roman emperor (d. 14 AD).
- 1890 – Friedrich Paulus, German general (d. 1957).
- 1900 – Bill Stone, English soldier (d. 2009).
- 1961 – William C. McCool, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003).
- 788 – Ælfwald I, king of Northumbria.
- 1193 – Robert de Sablé, French knight.
- 1573 – Azai Hisamasa, Japanese warlord (b. 1524).
- 1850 – José Gervasio Artigas, Uruguayan general and politician (b. 1764).
- 1913 – Donato Álvarez, Argentinian general (b. 1825).
- 1992 – James Van Fleet, American general (b. 1892).
- 2009 – Paul B. Fay, American sailor and politician, United States Secretary of the Navy (b. 1918).
- 2012 – Pavel Grachev, Russian general and politician, 1st Minister of Defence for Russia (b. 1948).
- 2013 – Abdel Hamid al-Sarraj, Syrian colonel and politician (b. 1925).
- 2013 – Gil Dozier, American captain, lawyer, and politician (b. 1934).