On This Day … 21 September

Events

  • 455 – Emperor Avitus enters Rome with a Gallic army and consolidates his power.
  • 1170 – The Kingdom of Dublin falls to Norman invaders.
  • 1217 – Livonian Crusade: The Estonian leader Lembitu and Livonian leader Kaupo the Accursed are killed in the Battle of St. Matthew’s Day.
  • 1435 – The Congress of Arras causes Burgundy to switch sides in the Hundred Years’ War.
  • 1745 – A Hanoverian army is defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart
  • 1776 – Part of New York City is burned shortly after being occupied by British forces.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point.
  • 1792 – French Revolution: The National Convention abolishes the monarchy.
  • 1843 – John Williams Wilson takes possession of the Strait of Magellan on behalf of the Chilean government.
  • 1860 – Second Opium War: An Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Palikao.
  • 1896 – Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan: British forces under the command of Horatio Kitchener take Dongola.
  • 1898 – Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days’ Reform in China.
  • 1939 – Romanian Prime Minister Armand Călinescu is assassinated by the Iron Guard.
  • 1942 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: On the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis send over 1,000 Jews of Pidhaitsi to Bełżec extermination camp.
  • 1942 – The Holocaust in Ukraine: In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2,588 Jews.
  • 1942 – The Holocaust in Poland: At the end of Yom Kippur, Germans order Jews to permanently move from Konstantynów to Biała Podlaska.
  • 1942 – The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.
  • 1949 – The People’s Republic of China is proclaimed.
  • 1953 – Lieutenant No Kum-sok, a North Korean pilot, defects to South Korea with his jet fighter.
  • 1964 – Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom, but remains in the Commonwealth.
    • Indedependence Day.
  • 1964 – The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world’s fastest bomber, makes its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.
  • 1972 – Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos begins authoritarian rule by declaring martial law.
    • Commemoration of the Declaration of Martial Law (Philippines).
  • 1981 – Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom.
    • Independence Day.
  • 1991 – Armenia gains independence from the Soviet Union.
  • 2012 – Three Egyptian militants open fire on a group of Israeli soldiers in a southern Israel cross-border attack.
  • 2013 – Al-Shabaab Islamic militants attack the Westgate shopping mall in Kenya, killing at least 67 people.
  • International Day of Peace (International).
  • Victory over the Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikovo (Russia).

People (Births)

  • 1758 – Christopher Gore, American soldier, lawyer, and politician, 8th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1827).
  • 1859 – Francesc Macià, Catalan colonel and politician, 122nd President of Catalonia (d. 1933).
  • 1867 – Henry L. Stimson, American colonel, lawyer, and politician, 46th United States Secretary of State (d. 1950).
  • 1890 – Max Immelmann, German lieutenant and pilot (d. 1916).
  • 1890 – Charles William Train, English sergeant, Victoria Cross recipient (d. 1965).
  • 1932 – Marjorie Fletcher, English Director of the Women’s Royal Naval Service (d. 2008).
  • 1951 – Aslan Maskhadov, Chechen general and politician, 3rd President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (d. 2005).

People (Deaths)

  • 454 – Flavius Aetius, Roman general and politician (b. 396).
  • 1217 – Lembitu, Estonian king and military leader.
  • 1397 – Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, English admiral (b. 1346).
  • 1796 – François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, French general (b. 1769).
  • 1906 – Samuel Arnold, American conspirator (b. 1838).
  • 1944 – Artur Phleps, Romanian general (b. 1881).
  • 1982 – Ivan Bagramyan, Russian general (b. 1897).
  • 1988 – Glenn Robert Davis, American lieutenant and politician (b. 1914).
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