On This Day … 18 September

Events

  • AD 96 – Nerva is proclaimed Roman emperor after Domitian is assassinated.
  • 324 – Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine’s sole control over the Roman Empire.
  • 1048 – Battle of Kapetron between a combined Byzantine-Georgian army and a Seljuq army.
  • 1066 – Norwegian king Harald Hardrada lands with Tostig Godwinson at the mouth of the Humber River and begins his invasion of England.
  • 1454 – Thirteen Years’ War: In the Battle of Chojnice, the Polish army is defeated by the Teutonic knights.
  • 1739 – The Treaty of Belgrade is signed, whereby Austria cedes lands south of the Sava and Danube rivers to the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1759 – French and Indian War: The Articles of Capitulation of Quebec are signed.
  • 1793 – The first cornerstone of the United States Capitol is laid by George Washington.
  • 1810 – First Government Junta in Chile.
    • Though supposed to rule only during the Peninsular War in Spain, it is in fact the first step towards independence from Spain, and is commemorated as such.
  • 1812 – The 1812 Fire of Moscow dies down after destroying more than three-quarters of the city.
    • Napoleon returns from the Petrovsky Palace to the Moscow Kremlin, spared from the fire.
  • 1864 – American Civil War: John Bell Hood begins the Franklin–Nashville Campaign in an unsuccessful attempt to draw William Tecumseh Sherman back out of Georgia.
  • 1879 – The Blackpool Illuminations are switched on for the first time.
  • 1898 – The Fashoda Incident triggers the last war scare between Britain and France.
  • 1914 – The Irish Home Rule Act becomes law, but is delayed until after World War I.
  • 1922 – The Kingdom of Hungary is admitted to the League of Nations.
  • 1931 – The Mukden Incident gives Japan a pretext to invade and occupy Manchuria.
  • 1934 – The Soviet Union is admitted to the League of Nations.
  • 1939 – World War II: The Polish government of Ignacy Mościcki flees to Romania.
  • 1939 – World War II: The radio show Germany Calling begins transmitting Nazi propaganda.
  • 1940 – World War II: The British liner SS City of Benares is sunk by German submarine U-48; those killed include 77 child refugees.
  • 1943 – World War II: Adolf Hitler orders the deportation of Danish Jews.
  • 1944 – World War II: The British submarine HMS Tradewind torpedoes Jun’yō Maru, killing 5,600, mostly slave labourers and POWs.
  • 1944 – World War II:Battle of Arracourt begins.
  • 1945 – General Douglas MacArthur moves his general headquarters from Manila to Tokyo.
  • 1947 – The National Security Act reorganises the US government’s military and intelligence services.
  • 1948 – Operation Polo is terminated after the Indian Army accepts the surrender of the army of Hyderabad.
  • 1961 – UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld dies in an air crash while attempting to negotiate peace in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • 1982 – The Sabra and Shatila massacre in Lebanon comes to an end.
  • 1997 – The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention is adopted.
  • 2015 – Two security personnel, 17 worshippers in a mosque, and 13 militants are killed during a Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan attack on a Pakistan Air Force base on the outskirts of Peshawar.
  • 2016 – The 2016 Uri attack in Jammu and Kashmir, India by terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed results in the deaths of nineteen Indian Army soldiers and all four attackers.
  • Navy Day (Croatia).

People (Births)

  • 1091 – Andronikos Komnenos, Byzantine prince and general (d. 1130/31).
  • 1606 – Zhang Xianzhong, Chinese rebel leader (d. 1647).
  • 1878 – James O. Richardson, American admiral (d. 1974).
  • 1889 – Leslie Morshead, Australian general, businessman, and educator (d. 1959).
  • 1893 – William March, American soldier and author (d. 1954).
  • 1904 – Jose de Rivera, American soldier and sculptor (d. 1985).
  • 1933 – Bob Bennett, American soldier and politician (d. 2016).
  • 1944 – Charles L. Veach, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut (d. 1995).

People (Deaths)

  • 411 – Constantine III, Roman usurper.
  • 893 – Zhang Xiong, Chinese warlord.
  • 1598 – Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Japanese daimyō (b. 1536).
  • 1944 – Robert G. Cole, American colonel, Medal of Honour recipient (b. 1915).
  • 1987 – Américo Tomás, Portuguese admiral and politician, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1894).
  • 2015 – Mario Benjamín Menéndez, Argentinian general and politician (b. 1930).
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