On This Day … 11 September

Events

  • 9 – Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends, where the Roman Empire suffers the greatest defeat of its history and the Rhine being established as the border between the Empire and the so-called barbarians for the next four hundred years
  • 1185 – Isaac II Angelos kills Stephen Hagiochristophorites and then appeals to the people, resulting in the revolt that deposes Andronikos I Komnenos and places Isaac on the throne of the Byzantine Empire.
  • 1297 – Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scots jointly led by William Wallace and Andrew Moray defeat the English.
  • 1390 – Lithuanian Civil War (1389–92): The Teutonic Knights begin a five-week siege of Vilnius.
  • 1541 – Santiago, Chile, is besieged by indigenous warriors, led by Michimalonco, to free eight indigenous chiefs held captive by the Spaniards. However, the Spaniards decapitated them and rolled their heads on the main square, horrifying the indigenous warriors, and subsequently ending the attack.
  • 1565 – Ottoman forces retreat from Malta ending the Great Siege of Malta.
  • 1609 – Henry Hudson discovers Manhattan Island and the indigenous people living there.
  • 1649 – Siege of Drogheda ends: Oliver Cromwell’s Parliamentarian troops take the town and execute its garrison.
  • 1683 – Battle of Vienna: Coalition forces, including the famous winged Hussars, led by Polish King John III Sobieski lift the siege laid by Ottoman forces.
  • 1697 – Battle of Zenta: a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history.
  • 1708 – Charles XII of Sweden stops his march to conquer Moscow outside Smolensk, marking the turning point in the Great Northern War.
    • The army is defeated nine months later in the Battle of Poltava, and the Swedish Empire ceases to be a major power.
  • 1709 – Battle of Malplaquet: Great Britain, Netherlands and Austria fight against France.
  • 1714 – Siege of Barcelona: Barcelona, capital city of Catalonia, surrenders to Spanish and French Bourbon armies in the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • 1758 – Battle of Saint Cast: France repels British invasion during the Seven Years’ War.
  • 1775 – Benedict Arnold’s expedition to Quebec leaves Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • 1776 – British–American peace conference on Staten Island fails to stop nascent American Revolutionary War.
  • 1777 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Brandywine: The British celebrate a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: Sugarloaf Massacre: A small detachment of militia from Northampton County are attacked by Native Americans and Loyalists near Little Nescopeck Creek.
  • 1800 – The Maltese National Congress Battalions are disbanded by British Civil Commissioner Alexander Ball.
  • 1802 – France annexes the Kingdom of Piedmont.
  • 1803 – Battle of Delhi, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, between British troops under General Lake, and Marathas of Scindia’s army under General Louis Bourquin.
  • 1813 – War of 1812: British troops arrive in Mount Vernon and prepare to march to and invade Washington, D.C..
  • 1814 – War of 1812: The climax of the Battle of Plattsburgh, a major United States victory in the war.
  • 1829 – Surrender of the expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown to retake Mexico.
    • This was the consummation of Mexico’s campaign for independence.
  • 1836 – The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed by rebels after defeating Empire of Brazil’s troops in the Battle of Seival, during the Ragamuffin War.
  • 1852 – Outbreak of Revolution of September 11 resulting in the State of Buenos Aires declaring independence as a Republic.
  • 1897 – After months of pursuit, generals of Menelik II of Ethiopia capture Gaki Sherocho, the last king of Kaffa, bringing an end to that ancient kingdom.
  • 1914 – World War I: Australia invades German New Guinea, defeating a German contingent at the Battle of Bita Paka.
  • 1919 – United States Marine Corps invades Honduras.
  • 1922 – The Treaty of Kars is ratified in Yerevan, Armenia.
  • 1941 – Charles Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech accusing the British, Jews and FDR’s administration of pressing for war with Germany.
  • 1943 – World War II: German troops occupy Corsica and Kosovo-Metohija ending the Italian occupation of Corsica.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Western Allied invasion of Germany begins near the city of Aachen.
  • 1944 – World War II: RAF bombing raid on Darmstadt and the following firestorm kill 11,500.
  • 1945 – World War II: Australian 9th Division forces liberate the Japanese-run Batu Lintang camp, a POW and civilian internment camp on the island of Borneo.
  • 1950 – Korean War: President Harry S. Truman approved military operations north of the 38th parallel.
  • 1965 – Indo-Pakistani War: The Indian Army captures the town of Burki, just southeast of Lahore.
  • 1967 – China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) launched an attack on Indian posts at Nathu La, Sikkim, India, which resulted a military clashes.
  • 1970 – The Dawson’s Field hijackers release 88 of their hostages. The remaining hostages, mostly Jews and Israeli citizens, are held until 25 September.
  • 1973 – A coup in Chile headed by General Augusto Pinochet topples the democratically elected president Salvador Allende.
    • Pinochet exercises dictatorial power until ousted in a referendum in 1988, staying in power until 1990.
  • 1980 – A new constitution of Chile is established under the influence of then Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, which is subject to controversy in Chile today.
  • 1982 – The international forces that were guaranteeing the safety of Palestinian refugees following Israel’s 1982 Invasion of Lebanon leave Beirut.
    • Five days later, several thousand refugees are massacred in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Phalange forces.
  • 2001 – The September 11 attacks, a series of coordinated terrorist attacks killing 2,977 people using four aircraft hijacked by 19 members of al-Qaeda.
    • Two aircraft crash into the World Trade Centre in New York City, a third crashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
  • 2007 – Russia tests the largest conventional weapon ever, the Father of All Bombs.
  • Battle of Tendra Day (Russia).

People (Births)

  • 1182 – Minamoto no Yoriie, Japanese shōgun (d. 1204).
  • 1611 – Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, French general (d. 1675).
  • 1816 – Carl Zeiss, German lens maker, created the Optical instrument (d. 1888).
  • 1862 – Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, English field marshal and politician, 12th Governor General of Canada (d. 1935).
  • 1898 – Gerald Templer, English field marshal and politician, British High Commissioner in Malaya (d. 1979).
  • 1903 – Stephen Etnier, American lieutenant and painter (d. 1984).
  • 1917 – Donald Blakeslee, American colonel and pilot (d. 2008).
  • 1917 – Ferdinand Marcos, Filipino soldier, lawyer, and politician, 10th President of the Philippines (d. 1989).
  • 1921 – Leaford Bearskin, American tribal leader and colonel (d. 2012).
  • 1924 – Daniel Akaka, American soldier, engineer, and politician (d. 2018).
  • 1925 – Harry Somers, Canadian soldier and composer (d. 1999).
  • 1927 – G. David Schine, American soldier and businessman (d. 1996).
  • 1935 – Gherman Titov, Russian general, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2000).
  • 1937 – Robert Crippen, American captain, pilot, and astronaut.

People (Deaths)

  • 883 – Kesta Styppiotes, Byzantine general.
  • 1865 – Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de Lamoricière, French general (b. 1806).
  • 1917 – Georges Guynemer, French captain and pilot (b. 1894).
  • 1932 – Franciszek Żwirko, Polish soldier and pilot (b. 1895).
  • 1950 – Jan Smuts, South African field marshal and politician, 2nd Prime Minister of South Africa (b. 1870).
  • 1952 – Alfrēds Riekstiņš, Latvian military officer and freedom fighter (d. 1913).
  • 1956 – Billy Bishop, Canadian colonel and pilot (b. 1894).
  • 1968 – René Cogny, French general (b. 1904).
  • 1985 – Henrietta Barnett, British Women’s Royal Air Force officer (b. 1905).
  • 2011 – Anjali Gupta, Indian soldier and pilot (b. 1975).
  • 2013 – Virgil A. Richard, American general (b. 1937).
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